الجمعة، 21 أكتوبر، 2011

Trade in the era of the Pharaohs

Was the site unique to Egypt, geographically, where it mediates three continents are: Africa and Europe, coupled with a land routes from the east through the Sinai Peninsula, and through the West, where the Western Sahara in the South there are some roads, and the River Nile, a significant impact in touch Egypt states neighboring economic and commercial relations with these countries.
 
And Contacts, economic, and of trade with neighboring countries to about 3200 BC during the era of the family were the kings of Egypt's keenness to establish business relations with the Levant, which was dubbed Pfniqia to import rice and pine wood, oil and wine in pottery. These relations may return to the pre-dynastic period, which has extended to 3500 BC. M.
 
  Have used some of the wood imported from Lebanon in the tombs of the kings at Abydos. And found some pots from southern Iraq. Saw the South as well as commercial exchange between Egypt and Nubia back to the era of the Second Dynasty 3000. M from the reign of King (Khasekhem), where imports of Egyptian Nubia ebony and ivory, and is shared with the stone vessels and pottery from Egypt

Egypt was imported from Libya in the west oils, especially olive oil, as well as livestock of all kinds
 
With the beginning of the Old Kingdom around 2700 BC. M we also find the King (Bent), the first king of the Fourth Dynasty, Abu (Cheops) sent trade missions to Phoenicia to import cedar wood in the merchant fleet comprises forty ships, which indicates the volume of bilateral trade large, with reference to the the arrival of the Egyptian commercial activity to the island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, which was extended during the fifth Dynasty in the reign of King (USSR K) to the south shore of the islands of Greece.
 
  In the south there were commercial flights between Egypt and Nubia during the Fourth Dynasty, fifth and sixth, where he is the exchange of grain and flax and Egyptian faience, honey, livestock, and plants from Nubia, also extended trade to punt, and was accompanied by these campaigns guard from the Egyptian army and translators

.From the West was being imported cattle from sheep and goats and cows for the abundance of grassland by, and with the end of unity between North and South at the end of the old state and the fragmentation of the country and entering the era of decay of the first in 2200 BC. And until 2062 BC. M not seen in the country, only the band, and the collapse of central government , activity ceased trading with neighboring countries.
 
With the beginning of the Middle Kingdom 2062 - 1675 BC. CE, after the unity of the country for the second time at the hands of the King (Mentuhotep) second back trade missions to the activity, especially with the South in the (Pont), where the king sent (Mentuhotep) the second fleet business to bring marble. With loose parts to be installed on the shore of the Red Sea.
 
In the East, Egypt has the consolidation of trade relations with Phoenicia and Syria, and Palestine, where this country was a commercial market for the disposal of their products from the pots, fabrics, linen and turquoise stones and timber import rice and oil products and some of Iraq.
 
In the West, has sent the King (Amenemhat) first and (Senusret) was the first son to bring many types of livestock

With the fall of the Middle Kingdom in 1675 BC. M and for a hundred years attacked the Hyksos Egypt and are the peoples of the Asian - and subjected the country's north to their rule and only the rule of the Egyptians only to the south of the country, which led to the suspension of commercial activity, especially with the East and West, but remained constant with Nubia in the south until liberation of the country once again at the hands of the King (Ahmose I) in 1575 BC. m and the unity of Egypt for the third time and the establishment of a modern state.

With the beginning of the New Kingdom 1575 950 BC. AD, Egypt witnessed a boom civilization's advance in Egypt became a great empire after a series of wars with neighboring countries, both from the east or west or south to secure its borders and became the Egyptian border, stretching from northern Syria (including Syria, Lebanon, Palestine in the west a large part of Libya) and up to the Fourth Cataract in Nubia in the south. Egypt has seen kings, rulers and worked to establish a strong empire paid wishful neighboring countries to establish diplomatic and trade relations on a large scale to gain the trust of Egypt.

And when she entered the neighboring countries under Egyptian control and became a trade during that period, semi-internal, ie within a single State Vaguetsr to transfer all the wealth of this country with each other without barriers, there was a kind of free trade between the east and west, south and center of the empire, witnessed the Egyptian markets a mixture of merchants and goods from all countries and the countries.

The continued Egyptian fleet in the period, the era of the modern state is its activity usual in the movement between the parts of the empire to meet Egypt's needs of all types of trade witnessed Egypt's best and richest eras of economic so that the capital of Luxor (Thebes) became the kiss of the ancient world and Dora capitals and has become one of the richest cities of the world's richest . The proof is the great impact on the rest it on the Egyptian economy at that time

With the demise of the New Kingdom and Egypt to enter the era of decay of the third beginning about in 950 BC. Till the end of the Pharaonic times in 332 BC. M Egypt has come under the rule of foreigners from the Nubians, Libyans, Persians and finally, (Alexander), the largest and the activity of trade between Egypt and its neighbors wobbling. And unstable depends on political circumstances and the nature of the ruling, nationality and internal relations. Sometimes we find Egypt ruled by the Nubians and sometimes Libyans and sometimes the horse each group while ruled Egypt was a commercial activity increases with the seizure by the Nubians with Libya because the Libyans, and so if they continued trade to include other countries, whether in Asia, in Persia, Iraq and southern Europe and southern Africa has not witnessed the history of before.

History bears witness with the rule of Egypt Twenty-sixth Dynasty with the reign of King (Basmatic) I 664 BC. And even in 525 BC. AD in the reign of King (Basmatic) Third, during that period wanted the kings of this family re-glories of modern civilization great after taking control of Egypt in Egypt to restore control of some areas lost Egypt in the east or south with the continued activity of trade with the countries of these regions over the nearly 134-year

The most important events in that period is to send Egypt a fleet commercially explore the shores of the African continent, from the Red Sea from Egyptian ports in the south, passing all the ports on the shore of Africa to open new commercial markets and continued the trip about three years, he managed the fleet of sailing around the African continent and return from the west through the strait of Gibraltar (columns Heracles) loaded with the wealth of Africa, all countries have stated crew fleet in their records that when Abharhm from the Red Sea, the sun shines on their left and at a certain point, and when Abharhm found the sun shines on their right hand and the evidence of their passage at the Cape of Good Hope South Africa for their commitment to the African shore of the continent, is the first time the fleet is a journey around the African continent.

 Was credited to the trade of Egypt and the Egyptian fleet in the discovery of this continent, in order to trade and discovery at the same time and had this exchange of trade between different countries, whether in Asia or Africa or Europe with many, many peoples of the world requires a team of translators, the translation between these trade missions to each other . Translators was Alqbwa (b thinkers and Aau) words translated for ease of dealing with foreign parties

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