الجمعة، 21 أكتوبر، 2011

Phoenician civilization

Phoenician civilization of the most important and oldest ancient civilizations and has a strong asset in history
 
Phoenicians Semitic group of assets, a branch of the Canaanites of the Amalekites. Inhabited the coasts of the Mediterranean over 4000 years BC. At specified intervals, dominated most of the Phoenicians on the Mediterranean islands even extended their colonies of Carthage in North Africa to Corsica and southern Spain. Greeks called the inhabitants of this area Balfoanicos (phoinikies), which means Abannvsgiyn because of the color of their clothes and Oqmsthm purple, which are notorious Besbaghtha Almorks of marine shells.

  Phoenicians became famous for their alphabet and their writings the most advanced, which relied on the exits of the letters instead of writing such as hieroglyphics and pictorial and cuneiform alphabet was out for each of the contemporary Arabic, Hebrew, Greek and Latin. And will probably be the inhabitants of the coast of Syria, Lebanon, Tunisia and Malta have Phoenician roots

Despite the many archaeological missions that have worked in all the ancient Phoenician sites, the detection of these sites did not exceed layers dating back to Byzantine times, Romanian, and in some locations to the Phoenicians has been reported from many historical sources, Babylonian, Assyrian and Pharaonic and Greek.
 
And agreed that the emergence of Phoenician cities due to four thousand years BC. Historians have disagreed in the assets of origin of them said they came from the shores of the Red Sea and some of them Erdjahm to the people of Dilmun in the Persian Gulf. However, they agreed that the Phoenicians were Semitic Canaanites from the heart of Sam son of Noah and linking them to al-Tabari Balamaliq Arab extinct

The Strabo (64 BC. M 19 m), geographical Roman, pointed to the graves in the islands of Bahrain similarity of Phoenician tombs, and that the inhabitants of these islands Dzaúarham remember that the names and towns are the names of Vinqah. He also said that in these cities Phoenician structures like structures. The evidence supporting this theory, the names in the Arab east of the island bearing the same names of the cities established by the Phoenicians on the Syrian coast. (Such as images) on the coast of Oman, and (Jbeil) and the island of Arwad (Arwad is the old name of the island of Muharraq in Bahrain and the island which is approximately Tarot Qatif city name, Beirut, Lebanon, was found Patarrot and Qatif effects of many Phoenician

As the Jean-Jacques Biriby that started from the Phoenicians to the Makran coast Shami, where they built their cities and they set up their civilization, which they deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. The Francis for a time the author of "History of Ancient East" sees "They have taken the caravan route from Qatif to the Valley Gtefan and Mount Twaik in Najd. And then passed through tattooing and Qassim Valhanakih. Including marching in the road which are used by pilgrims each year [said Ameen Rihani:" What is the consensus of historians and archaeologists that the Phoenician Semites like the Arabs. But they are Arabs originally. Displaced from the beaches on the eastern Arab Persian Gulf, from Qatif and Bahrain, to the coasts of the Mediterranean in ancient times "
 Came in the second part of the language of the Arabs "... It seems they (the Canaanites, Phoenicians) of Arab origin have moved the old traditions they Zanoa of homes adjacent to the Arabian Gulf to the coasts of the Mediterranean
 
Henry said that out Rawlیnson Phoenician (Canaanite) of the population of Bahrain, Qatif in the Persian Gulf. Zanoa from there to the coast of the Levant for nearly five thousand years. Arab descent, and they and there names Veniqih Veniqih cities such as Tyre, Byblos and Arwad

 The Arab historian Abu Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310 AH / 922 AD) that "the Canaanites, the Arabs are anachronistic, and that they Bonsabhm return to the Giants." Ibn Khaldun and for taking all the Canaanites Tabari: "... The Canaanites were the Giants, who had been deployed in the Levant and Mkouha." He also said: "The first king of the Arabs in the Levant as we learned of the Giants." He also said: "The TaSeenMeem and the Amalekites and Amim, Jassim speaking Arabic

 Dr. Pierre Zloaa (specialist in the study of DNA and a teacher at the Lebanese American University and director of the Middle East in the Genographic Project) conducted a recent study within the project Genographic Project of the Institute for National Geographic, which aims to study the movement of migration of peoples historically. Was able during the five years to identify a gene, "an inheritance" distinguishes the people of the coast of Greater Syria called the scientific name of the J2 is no different from the genes of the people of the Arabian Peninsula, but concentrated on the coast and around the Mediterranean and is intertwined with several genes other what explains the mating peoples together. Says, "genetically any scientifically impossible to divide the people who live in areas of Phoenician civilization.

 Q 99% of children carrying a gene that J2 holders are arrived to this part of the world by around 10 thousand years, ie, with the beginning of the era of urbanization (the transition from nomadic to a state of residence). And lived in this land and they set up their villages and towns, and some of them migrated to other parts of the Mediterranean where he built settlements there and behind the effects and genes. J2 gene exists in all the cities used by the Phoenicians in the Mediterranean from Carthage to Sicily and Malta ... Which dates back its presence in the region to 2000 BC. "The study underscores that the Phoenicians and the Canaanites are Tzmatan for one people. The other research pointed to the spread of DNA mtDNA Haplotype U6b in different regions in northern Europe and western Africa, indicating the presence of Phoenicians in those areas

 Canaanites settled the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea, which includes <[Soeriao Lebanon and Palestine]> Current since 5000 BC. M. Since 1100 BC. CE, called the Canaanites who inhabited the coast north of Tyre Phoenicians until the upper coast of Syria, and the Canaanites, the South has named Balvelstien.
 
Phoenicians established cities on the west coast of the Mediterranean Sea is still to this day full of such images, and Arwad Ugarit, Sidon and Byblos, and others.
 
The cities of Phoenicia reached its commercial peak of its glory in the thirteenth century BC It was the contacts include marine areas of the ancient world and the whole amounted to a great degree of trade
 
In the late second millennium BC, continues to control the Aegean to the Mediterranean Sea, allowing the Veniqian to expand their trade in the Navy. And dispersed their ships and then their colonies throughout the Mediterranean

 Phoenician cities spread in ancient times, the coastal area of the city of Ugarit in northern Syria (modern Ras Shamra) to Acre in northern Palestine, a length of about 322 km. Then settled in the eastern coast of Cyprus, to rich copper and precious stones, and then to the abundance of grain and Khmurha and Ziunha, but its the middle between two worlds. And built most of the stores coast.
 
Were interested in areas of Cilicia, Tartous, and there came to Rhodes in front of the beach. Settled in the islands of Crete and "Alsaclad." But they are not more than the Dardanelles in the establishment of the colonies because of the distance. Though their convoys have reached the shores of the Black Sea and Armenia.
 
In the south, the presence of the Phoenicians; but they did not establish colonies because of the presence of the Egyptians. Has set up warehouses in Memphis, where enjoyed the freedom of trade. And they set up a special Balsurien alive since the twelfth century BC, and established a temple of Astarte

 As competition intensified Greeks, Phoenicians preferred to leave the field open to Sidon, the commercial areas of influence are being transferred to the western basin of the Mediterranean. They settled in Sicily, and "Iotiqa" (old city) in today's Tunisia, Malta, keeping in their choice for their colonies of marine commercial center and the site to create a natural harbors. From there, the Phoenicians to the south of Sardinia, and the islands adjacent "Kalpaliar." And then have stepped towards the "Tarshish" (Spain), where one of their stations turned the business into a colony

 Were not established the first colony of Carthage in North Africa, but was preceded by a colony "Iotiqa" (100 years BC). Abstract on the river, and "Zaras" (Bizerte). It was called Carthage (modern city) to distinguish it from its neighbor, "Iotiqa" (old city). Was built about 814 BC. M. To be the link between Tyre and the Phoenician colonies.

  He chose her Alsurion strategically located between the eastern and western basins of the Mediterranean. Related to the African continent by land, sea and the various stations, stores, and the Phoenician colonies in the West. And has become Carthage Carthage or the heir to the city of Tyre after the fall of the latter and formed a business empire became proverbial in the prosperity and progress. It should also be noted that Viniqia Balbonqaan Carthage, dubbed the mixture between the Phoenicians and the indigenous inhabitants of North Africa

Herodotus tells that the pharaoh Ncao II wanted to extend its activity and maritime trade, the Phoenicians, he asked the sailors to take a trip around Africa trip and they lasted three years, from the Red Sea to the Cape of Good Hope, and then returned via Gibraltar. The ancient world could not believe that the sun shines always on the left, brightened the day of the right of the sailors. When lack of Maonthm, they stop on the coast for the cultivation of some crops and then continue sailing after harvest

In a study of a researcher "Hynekh Zudhov", translated to Arabic d. Hassan Omran, entitled "Sorry Columbus'm not the first to discover America," reported from within the scientific arguments, which provided that the crossing of the Atlantic had already Columbus centuries, found in America, some of the evidence and the effects that indicate that the Phoenicians had crossed the Atlantic and arrived in America in ancient times, it is this evidence to find the thousands of artifacts in the graves in Guatemala, including a very small amulet of the god (Pace) with features of ugly beard beard was thought Mistotnoa the Middle East in the thousands of first BC that is doom and bad luck. Skill of the Phoenicians, marine and experience in the fight in the sea, and the presence of the amulet piece in the graves of the rite of the Phoenicians, as proven by archaeologists in the tombs in several regions of the Middle East, as well as engraving famous known inscription Paraiba in Brazil and inscriptions discovered "Steve Bartalumio" in central Utah in the U.S. United States

Did not seek to ignore the Phoenicians trade with the country, "ABN AMRO", and Mesopotamia, and beyond the countries and peoples. Vchabt caravan routes in all directions even included countries such as Egypt by sea related to Phoenicia and Asia Minor. The most important wild strangers: the coastal roads: one towards the south, passing through all the Phoenician cities and the coast of Palestine until the Sinai. And from there the road is divided into two divisions: the first around the Arabian Peninsula, where the famous cities of the Persian Gulf called the Phoenician cities. And the second to go to Egypt, Sudan and Abyssinia. The coastal road towards the north, Phoenicia will cross towards Cilicia and Latakia and Tartus Ugarit. And was the capital of the Hittites "Htosh" (strait Cui day) meeting point between the "royal road" to the Persian "Sardis" capital "Lydia" Western Asia Minor, and the northern route to Armenia and the Black Sea

 Internal Roads: Namely, the two main roads, the first branches off the coastal road north. Goes from Ugarit about Hama, and Aleppo, Edessa, and Carchemish, and Nisibis in the Syrian island, is connected up to the Euphrates Valley of Mesopotamia, or go to Nineveh, Haran. The second reflects the way the mountains of Lebanon to Damascus Zabadani destroy the land of Mesopotamia and eastern Syria, and this is the shortest route, but the most difficult. Both of the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia was the link between Phoenicia and India. In the wild their ways, the Phoenicians reside friendly relations with the peoples of the countries and areas that cross them; Phippnon bonds of understanding with the tribes, and will use each other brokers or counselors. This allowed them to create commercial stations and neighborhoods of their own. The security of the convoys evil thieves attackers in remote areas isolated

No wonder that the Phoenician traders continue to trip a few years sometimes. Understanding of hikers, offering the people Musnoathm and other manufactures. Kvaniqia country and can not give a lot, with the exception of timber, oil and alcohol. So count on the production of other buy and sell. Fastordoa wool, leather and meat from the center of Syria, honey, cereals, from Palestine, and Alavawiyeh and spices from the Far East, copper from Cyprus, Greece and the Caucasus, and gold of Spain, and precious stones from Egypt and the Sinai, and perfumes from Mesopotamia, and ebony and ivory from the Sudan, linen and cotton from Egypt, and horses from Armenia

The religion of the Phoenicians, a set of rituals and worship set up by the Phoenician cities, and vary according to the places in which they are, despite their involvement in the perception of all of the same God and the cosmic and natural phenomena.
 
And it was the custom that every city of three gods: the God of elderly have the power and wisdom is usually called "Baal" any master, and a goddess of female sophistication and life, and God is a young plant and childbirth
 
Byblos was a three-Il are elderly and female Jbeil illness and to their part of God the boy Adonis.
In Sidon, Baal-Sidon, was elderly and female and Astrt Ashmoun god boy and his death is celebrated and the mission each year.
 
The three images composed of the sky god Baal Shamim and Astrt or gods and humans, plants, and Mlgart young young master of the city and its king
 .The effects in a number of other gods such as Baal Welders who slave in the western Mediterranean and Carthage, Tanit Goddess Carthaginian, and Baal of Lebanon, which gave him a factor Hiram on keratosis Hdasht in Cyprus immediate bronze and the death of the God of the free and the summer and harvest, and Baal Cassius (mountain bald) and Baal Zaphon and Prati (Hermon) the gods of the mountains. Then the goddess Shamash (the sun) and the gods Designing and day and month (moon)

 We have little information about rituals and sporadic acts of worship and Phoenician Mrasimhm. There are signs that they were offering sacrifices to please the gods and Khuntm wear purple uniforms during the ritual. He stated that the sacrifice to the gods and to enter into the courtyard of the temple, he had to purify himself and replaces the mundane clothes with new ones. As it was away from the structure Mlgart swine, lest Tdnasseh proximity.
 
And sacrifice when the Phoenicians may be exceeded as of their property has exceeded that to become members of them, or their slaves They were picking someone to be a sacrifice as described in the translation of a monumental inscription Paraiba their waste
 
In celebration of the death of God, people shave their heads and beat her and live Almanahat and declare mourning in all parts, and the day it is due to say that life has become in the sky

 Meet most of the scholars of languages ​​and effects on the invention of the alphabet mother, who was born in which all the world's alphabets such as Greek, Latin, Arabic and Hebrew have been at the hands of the Phoenicians, where he found the oldest number (Loch clay) written by the alphabet in Ugarit, near the city of Latakia in Syria, of Herodotus, the Greek ratios invention Herodotus Phoenician Cadmus. When Cadmus moved to the dissemination of good among the peoples of Europe.

  There are traces in the city of Thebes is a pattern to the image of his sons Cadmus knows the alphabet. It is the oldest writings started the Phoenician alphabet inscriptions the tomb of King Ahiram or Jbeil "Byblos". He states that he found traces of Phoenician texts in other countries such as Cyprus, Egypt, Spain, Italy, Tunisia and especially the majority of Mediterranean countries, and were written from right language Alviiqih A to the left. As noted researcher, "Steve Bartalumio" Phoenician establishment on the effects of belonging to Carthage in central Utah in the United States

      

هناك تعليق واحد:

  1. تنظيف شقق بالمدينة المنورة تقدم خدمة شركة نظافة شقق كاحد الخدمات البارزه فى الشركه والتى تميزها فى مجال التنظيف
    شركة تنظيف شقق بالمدينة المنورة
    وبخاصة تنظيف الشقق مما جعلنا افضل شركة تنظيف شقق بالمدينة المنورة نعمل دائما على ارضاء عملاءنا من حيث الجوده فى الخدمات والسرعه وكذلك اسعار شركات تنظيف شقق بالمدينة المنورة التنافسيه بالاضافه الى العديد من المميزات الاخرى نحن نقدم لكم احدث الادوات والمطهرات العالميه التى لا تضر بالبيئه عن طريق شركات تنظيف الشقق بالمدينة المنورة كما ان لدينا فريق متخصص لكل منزل على حده
    تنظيف شقق بالمدينة المنورة
    .سوف تسعد من انك تعاملت مع شركة لتنظيف الشقق واخذت منها الخدمه فهى شركه فوق الممتازه لما قد تقدمه من خدمات يسعد العملاء بها وانها تقدم عروض ممتازه لذا فهى شركة تنظيف شقق بالمدينة المنورة التى يتمناها الكثير ويتمنى الحصول على النظافه التى تقدمها
    تنظيف شقق بالمدينه المنوره
    لكلا من اصحاب الفلل او القصور وذلك لان تنظيف شقق بالمدينة المنورة التى تقدمها مثاليه الى اعلى درجه. تنظيف شقق بالمدينه المنوره هى شركة متخصصه فى مجال تنظيف الشقق والفلل والقصور
    غسيل شقق بالمدينة المنورة
    لان عمليات التنظيف فيها تتم على احدث الطرق الحديثه كما انها تتم على ايدى افضل المهره المدربين على عمليات التنظيف فمن خلال غسيل شقق نوفر لكم خدمة التنظيف عن طريق غسيل شقق بالمدينة المنورة تعمل عن طريق ماكينات مخصصه لتنظيف وتلميع الارضيات وايضا الحوائط تقوم شركة غسيل شقق بتدريب عمال الشركه
    غسيل شقق بالمدينه المنوره
    بشكل كبير حتى نخرج باجمل صوره ممكنه ونقدم افضل النتائج فى عملية التنظيف.



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