الخميس، 12 يناير، 2012

The ancient Egyptian civilization

Most ancient civilizations, especially the civilization of the ancient Egyptians are considered the most important civilization in history because of its importance
 
Where he discovered the ancient Egyptian many important discoveries of human remains to the site wow now between scientists and those interested in history

Civilization of the ancient Egyptians or Pharaonic civilization is a civilization which in Egypt under the pharaohs of different families since the dawn of history until the Roman conquest of Egypt over 3000 years.

 · Since 250 thousand years BC. M. In prehistoric times, Egypt was home to primitive man, who was trapping animals in the area was in the far south at Nubia rich in grass
 
· The past 35 thousand years BC. M. This was the area of desertification, which stops rainfall, creating agricultural communities in central Egypt and the Delta in the north. The first Egyptian civilization in the region in Upper Badari based on farming, fishing and farming, livestock and poultry industry Alfajarwaltaadin

  In about the year 4000 BC. M. Irrigation systems have emerged and became small tribal kingdoms of Egypt and the Upper White symbolizes a crown, face sea symbolizes a crown, and the Red King Menes united the two countries from the South since 3,200 years BC. M and made the capital of Memphis (Memphis). This unification made ​​Egypt a safe country and its capital, Memphis, and this is clear from the records of the many who kept the dry climate of the message will be reserved through the ages and successive Maketb on papyrus.

.This historical division of Egypt and known system attributed to dynastic Egyptian priest named Maniton was written in the Ptolemaic era:
Divide the history of Egypt for thirty families, even Alexander the Great invaded Egypt and the history of this overlooked gaps in the periods of many of the rulers of Egypt. See Maniton.
· Under the ruler of Egypt makes it divinity since the unification of Musraam 3,200 years BC. M. Even the Roman occupation of Egypt.
· 2772 BC. M. Egyptians knew that the 365 day calendar year.
· 2700 BC. M. King Djoser built his pyramid at Saqqara pyramid known as the runway.
· 2560 BC. M. King Khufu built the Great Pyramid, which has been the highest building in the world until the 13th century.
· 2260 BC. M events took place the story of the farmer Alvsih
· 2050 BC. Became a good Luxor during the Middle Kingdom capital of Egypt.
· 2000 BC. M. Egypt Rodt cats to hunt snakes and progress in astronomy and flood prediction paid off.
· 1786 BC. M. Hyksos who came to Egypt as traders and action in the turbulent century before, occupying the north of Egypt, and yet advance the horse and the wheel and a strong influence because of domestic problems in Egypt.
· 1600 BC. M. Revolt against the Hyksos in Upper Egypt it spread all over Egypt.
· 1560 BCE. M. Ahmose expelled the Hyksos and the rest of Asian tribes, the founders of the modern state, and Egypt became a colonial state and took over most of the ancient world.
· 1500 BC. M. Use sweep
· 1425 BC. M. Became king Thutmose III ruled Egypt and founded the Egyptian Empire, or what is described as the modern state
· 1375 BC. M. Call monotheism of Akhenaten and moved the capital from Thebes to Tel el-Amarna and the prevention of sun worship, which led to the disintegration of large parts of the Egyptian Empire
· 1271 BC. M. King Ramses II Alhethein fighting on the eastern border of the country in a long battle called Kadesh, which did not win a
· 1285 BC. M. The second king of the Hittites Khatossell hold a peace treaty with Ramses II is the first peace treaty in history, a blog and came to power parity
· 1236 BC. M. King Merneptah, king of Egypt (1236 1223), repels attack the Sea Peoples and Libyans and written on the Bin Walid that he attacked the people (Israel) and spent it in the (1231)
· 1167 BC. M the death of Ramses III (1198 1167) the last king of Egypt bones and a weak central state, priests, and governors in control of Egypt and the beginning of the Late Period
· 750 BC. M. King Kachta king of the South up to rule and declares himself king of the country and the son of the god Amun.
· 671 BC. M. Wars with the Assyrians
· 661 BC. M. The expulsion of the Assyrians, the Egyptians at the hands of the first Abasmatic
· 601 BC. Nackhaw M. King II repel invasion, war, Egyptian Babylonian Bably
· 525 BC. M. Alakhmignon invade Egypt and ruled it for the year (405) m.
· (405). M. The expulsion of the Egyptians to the Persians at the hands of Imereti
· 343 BC. M. Persians occupied Egypt again until 332 BC.
· 332 BC. M. Alexander the Great invades Egypt and founded Alexandria
· 323 BC. M. The reign of the Ptolemies
· 30 BC. M. Cleopatra VII commits suicide - the end of the rule of the Ptolemies and the beginning of Roman rule
 · 330 AD the Roman Byzantine rule in Egypt.
· 641 AD introduction of Islam in Egypt after 33 years of his appearance in Mecca.
Were not the ancient Egyptian civilization civilized slip at the age of time. Because their culture was individually Basmadtha civilization and achievements of the huge and authenticity. This is bestowed upon the credibility of authenticity among all civilizations. Or civilizations, making it the world's largest. This civilization Mkotha and more impressed and famous of ancient civilizations. We have carried civilization ancient Egyptians The Ancient Egyptians Civilization along the River Nile in northeast Africa since 5000 BC. M. To the year 30 BC. M. .. The longest civilization of the ancient world, continuity, and intended to ancient Egyptian civilization in terms of geography that civilization which originated in the valley and the Nile Delta, where he lived the ancient Egyptians. It is the cultural aspect refers to the civilization, language and rituals, customs and organization of their lives and running their own life, administrative, and their understanding of the nature around them and treat them with the neighboring peoples were the first people of domesticated cats.

The River Nile, which revolves around the ancient Egyptian civilization Npa over the hills of eastern Africa, Ethiopia and the sources of the Nile in southern Sudan, heading north from the Sudan to Egypt for the flood comes every year to feed the soil with silt. This phenomenon is made ​​of natural flood Egypt's economy is renewed in sleep dependent mainly on agriculture. It helped at the emergence of civilization is also free of clouds and sky brightness of the sun supervising nearly throughout the year to extend the ancient Egyptians Ieddfou and light. Egypt is also protected from the neighbors to the west desert and the sea from the north and east, and the presence of waterfalls (cataract) in the south of heart on the Nile to the ground, making it almost deserted. In this land back two of the seven wonders of the world. The two pyramids at Giza and the Lighthouse of Alexandria.

The plant was the oldest archaeological site of heart. And 6000 years ago was a grazing area by the summer rains fall grazing cattle until 4899 years ago when it rains receded. Discovered the stone circles has Scanbh communities in the region, including the village of the 18 wells feeding it water under the surface of the tiles Majuleci build a large statue of a cow-like sculpture of a large rock. The village consists of 18 beta. And the cemeteries where many of the cattle on the structures found in the rooms of mud. This indicates that the population they worship cows. And found the stoves were used. And bones of deer and hares and pottery sherds and decorated ostrich egg shells. But there is no human waste dumps or in the plant. This indicates that the formerly nomadic Bedouin come every summer to plant, where water and pasture. And marriage, trade and the establishment of religious rituals.

In the field of astronomy, we find that the ancient Egyptians had set up oldest observatory in the world and before the era of building the pyramids since the period of time by the sun and the stars where they set up the evidence of stone Mijalithat Megaliths. It is a circle of stone erected since 7000 years in the southern desert of Egypt. Almijalathat before the establishment of sites in England, Britain and Europe a thousand years as a famous Stonehenge.

 The plant site was discovered several years ago and consists of a small stone circle. Oppe bones of cattle and five diagonal lines of stones and tiles Ahadjrbh revealed by the diagonal at a distance of a mile from the site and some are up 9 feet. Each slab buried soil above the rock which is flat. This site is moving to the four cardinal points and determines the solar equinox. Active stone circle and the small bones of cattle and five lines of Majulithat italic. This was the site was built on the shore of Lake gather the rain water in summer time. Where herds of cattle were driven to the plant in the Neolithic period since 10 thousand years.

The nomadic herders come to in the rainy season, even years since 4800, where the monsoon receded towards southern region Ghellab to become barren. This was a small circle 12 feet in diameter with four sets of tiles as the menu you can see the horizon. The two groups Tottagha the north and south and the other two groups on the horizon Tottagha Equinox solar summer. Strain and those after 2000 years have been displaced by the Nile Valley and established the ancient Egyptian civilization, especially after Oagafrat this area pastoral and climate change.

And settled in 4000 BC. M. Upper Egypt, especially in the old Nejn and Naqada and Abydos (see: accommodated in). This spatial stability make the ancient Egyptian civilization and creativity Mdnithm on their land. Vojdoa science, literature and traditions, customs, literature, stories, myths, and left after them mural recordings and manuscripts on papyrus rooting for this innovative civilization. Vcedoa Kalohramat large buildings, temples and tombs, which has defied time. In addition to manuscripts, drawings, Anakouchet and color images, which remained until today.

 They were treated with papyrus to make a thin Atmarh him and wrote the history, science, customs and traditions to be the message for their grandchildren and the world. They were writing it in the hieroglyphic writing a graphic symbol that reflects the image are known. And created concepts in arithmetic, geometry, and studied medicine, dentistry and worked them to the calendar according to their observations of the sun and stars. Although the ancient Egyptians worshiped many gods but the call of God appeared on unification by King Akhenaten ideological feature. They are also the first to Souroaptda doctrine of life in the Hereafter.

These concepts were not found at other peoples. And built and decorated with ornate tombs and Btathetha have to live with an eternal existence. Egypt was the superpower in the world was old and the political influence often extends his influence to neighboring countries in east Asia and west Africa. Heart and to the south and Puntland, Yemen and the ancient Egyptians call their land Kemet Kimmitt any black land because the Nile silt and supplies it was also called rationalization Deshret any ground reference for the color red sands of the desert under the burning rays of the sun. The abundance of the flood water has made them Avemun network of irrigation, agriculture and made ​​the boat for navigation and transport, fishing from the river.

And gave them the land of precious gems and metals such as gold, silver and copper. They exchange goods with neighboring countries. And history of Egypt we find start since 8000 BC. M. In South-East Egypt at the north-eastern border with Sudan. The shepherds came to her people and this area was a magnet where he was the sensitivity of the plains for grazing and climate was welcoming and the lakes of water from seasonal rains. And their tracks indicated that they were settlers there grazing livestock. They left after them huge buildings in 6000 BC. M.

The agriculture began in the town of Badari in six 5000 BC. M. The settlers are planting in Fayoum Badari thousand years ago. The city of Delta Mermaid on its western border since 4500 BC. M. Bhutto appeared in the city of pottery decorated pottery is different from the model, in Upper Egypt. There was a difference between the ancient Egyptians between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt in doctrine and way of burying the dead and architecture. The King Menes in 3100 BC. M. And united the two countries (Egypt Upper and Lower Egypt). And he put his head on the white symbolizes the Thrones of the face of the tribal and the Red Sea face. And the king made Memphis Memphis Mena united capital and was located west of the Nile at Giza and Abydos royal tomb, which moved the Saqqara during the era of the Old Kingdom.

The population of Egypt before the dynasties (5000 BC. M. - 3000 BC. M.) Not exceed hundreds of thousands, during the Old Kingdom (2575 BC. M. --2 134 BC. M.) Reached the 2 million people, during the Middle Kingdom (2040 BC. M. - 1640 BC. m.) increased the number and during the new Kingdom (1550 BC. m. - 1070 BC. m.) Aladdinm reached 3-4 million people. In the Hellenistic period (332 BC. .- AD 30 BC. M.) Reached No. 7 million people. Egypt and then entered the Roman era. The Egyptians adjacent river. Because it was a farming community of Memphis and Thebes two important when each of the capital. And education and writing was independent in ancient Egypt and the writing and reading confers limited between a small proportion of the ruling elite or clerks in the administrative apparatus.

 The sons of the royal family and the ruling elite learn to minors. And the rest of the people who were educated in schools or temples Mounzul. The education of girls confined to writing and reading at home. The teachers were strict and use multiplication. The callus school learning to read and write and write letters and other texts. The manuscripts were kept in the house of life, a house in the conservation of each temple, and like a library. He was educated in ancient Egypt were studying arithmetic, geometry and fractions, collection and medicine. I found books in internal medicine, surgery and treatment of the pharmaceutical and veterinary dentistry. The copy all books, including literature and religious texts.

The Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799 during the French campaign was carved in 196 BC. M. Accordingly, three languages ​​and hieroglyphic Aldemutqah (Coptic and modern language intended for the ancient Egyptians) and Greek. The time of the discovery of the mystery of language Ivsr for hundreds of years ago. Because the first two languages ​​were at the time of the dead languages​​. Until he came to the French scientist Jean-Francois Champollion and interpreted these languages ​​after the matched text Greek and hieroglyphic texts of the other. This indicates that these languages ​​were prevalent during the reign of the Ptolemaic Greeks of Egypt for more than 150 years.
 The hieroglyphic language spoken in religious temples and demotic language was the language of popular writing and the language of the Greek rulers of the Greeks. He was content to write in praise of Pharaoh Musroanjazath good for the priests and the people of Egypt. Was written by priests to read the public and private senior Egyptian and the ruling class. , And Champollion was able to decode the hieroglyphics in 1822 to open the horizons become acquainted with the civilization of the ancient Egyptians and decryption Olgazha sciences and the translation after the revival of their language after Muatha over the centuries. The hieroglyphic and Ibhaddatha taught anyone who wants to study Egyptology. And then evolved to the hieroglyphic Heratqah then to the Coptic and Damutqah

The ancient Egyptians to their calendar time since the early stage and was based on the Mlahzanam of the sun and the stars the sky and the dates of the Nile flood every year. They use their calendar to record historical events and festivals and scheduling decisions Narich property. The first attempt to make a calendar in 8000 BC. M. When making stone circles (see: Afbara. And Stonehenge) in the far south-west corner Egypt.

It was used to monitor the stars and their movements. They divided the day 24-hour (12 day and 12 night) and week 10 days month, 3 weeks or 30 days. Year and 12 months. It was divided into three classes each semester of 4 months. The year was equivalent to 360 days. The ancient Egyptians, then add 5 days every day of this five-day gala birthday refers to God. And this year will be a full Pharaonic 365 days. Which is almost close to the solar year is the difference except the fourth day in each calendar year, did not know well on every 4 years.
 
The ancient Egyptians Balgdid creative works of innovative and stunning the world, whether in embalming (article), music, sculpture, literature, painting, architecture and drama. After standardization of days Mbena become religious belief have the attributes of the official gods and pluralism in theology and the environment have an impact on religious thought and worship, where Pharaonic gods taken human or animal forms, or a mixture of them. These forms Gesdwiha ancient Egyptian forces of nature and its elements. And the formation of myths and stories about their gods and their world to understand the complex interactions in the universe around them

Religious belief has played a major role in their lives and have had their impact on the arts and to their thoughts about life in the Hereafter and the idea of the resurrection and their relationships Bgamanm. The Art Kalnan and bilateral dimensions of the drawing on the walls of temples, tombs and coffins of the dead and the coffins of the dead and papyrus. The Egyptian artists Iggsmon Bmlamhaa expressive portraits Ttin rate of time and space in these photos for Atabr Alkhlodomn through hieroglyphic drawings which accompany and be part of the wonderful work of art. The name of the statue is placed on the base or side.

.And we find the pyramids reflect the grandeur of architecture to the ancient Egyptians. This huge wild graves have four triangular walls converge at the point of the hill summit and represent the primitive origin of life in the myths of creation, or represent the strong sunlight. We have built a pyramid of about 100 and the house as a convenience to their rulers after death. The temple is square to the direction of east-west line of sunrise and sunset. The ancient Egyptians believed that the model of the temple built by humans can be a natural environment suitable for the gods. Have benefited from the ancient Egyptians, Greeks in sculpture, architecture, philosophy and theology (see: Amenhotep) .. The ancient Egyptians have been masters of arts works of stone, metal, glass and normal color.

Detection and exploration of the effects of pre-historic era in Egypt since 6000 years BC. M. The presence of archaeological sites on the border with Egypt, South Sudan, where they were found to burial places and the establishment of Aloebad and celebrations and tombs of cattle, which indicates the consecrated. The graves were found on the human handicraft items, weapons and utensils dating back to this era, which indicates the existence of the doctrine of after death. The doctrine of the ancient Egyptians represented the sun based on the doctrine of Ra and Horus, Aten and Khepri. And the moon in the doctrine of representative berries and Khonsu and the earth represented by the doctrine of the pocket and the sky goddess Nut and Tefnut Shuo god wind and humidity. And Osiris, Isis, the rulers of the underworld. Most of these myths the gods took place around them. And became Amon Ra and after the merger represented the doctrine of Amun - Ra as king of the gods.

 There was a local goddess worship in Egypt, region-specific. The king was the high priest practiced rituals of the festivals and the priests who performed on ordinary days temples. The ordinary people of the Aadkhalunha only to serve. The Egyptians are interested in life after death and living tombs and Izinunha Ejehzona and pictures and furniture. They were mummified after death care (article) Dead. They were put in coffins spells and amulets on the mummy. They write texts on magic or its fabric on the walls of the tomb and papyrus to be buried with him. This was the text of the guide and protect him in the underworld.

In ancient Egypt the king was the absolute ruler and spiritual leader and the link between the people and the gods. He was supported by the minister and the administrative system and followed by priests. The king was the commander of the army and his generals and the soldiers of the Egyptian army at the age of twenty-fifth, even forty years. The sentence was genetically between children in most of the time with the exception of Horemheb (1319 BC. M.) Who was the leader and his successor, Ramses I, who was not of royal blood. And rarely was a woman ruled Egypt except Hatshepsut, who ruled in the family 18 after the death of her husband Tuthmosis II in 1479 BC. M.

And shared rule with Thutmose III. The Egyptians believed that the King God of my God and King. After his death lead him to the ritual remains a god. He was nicknamed usually the owner and the King of the Two Lands of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt (Delta in the north and the valley to the south. It was Egypt's economy people on agriculture dependent on the Nile, which supplied Egypt with water and crop varieties such as grain, particularly barley, wheat, fruits, vegetables and Mmazm agricultural land was the property of the king and the temples. The sweep method of irrigation after the retreat of the flood. We have reserved several mummies discovered were found in all parts of the world in all continents where mummification mummification Follow all continents

 . The word mummy origin word hieroglyphics "mm", which means wax or tar, which was used in the mummification process. Has been derived for the later call Aantchert Mummy and then to the Indo-European languages​​. This word mummy apply to all human remains of soft tissues. And mummification may be present in every continent but the way the ancient Egyptians in a way linked to this is attributed to them. The first study of the mummies were in the 19th century. Egyptian mummies, and not just a roll of linen cloth is damaged by the dead bodies only. But a way to permanent homes for life. This fraudulent way to death.
         

هناك تعليق واحد:

  1. ان عزل اسطح تقوم بعمليات العزل حيث انه كما نعلم ان الاسطح تعرضها الدائم للاشعة والسيول والامطار يهدد حياتنا جميعا ويهدد بحدوث تصدعات خرسانية فى الابنية والعقارات الكبيرة والشديدة جدا مما يجعلنا نسرع فى اجراء اعمال العزل المائى والرطوبة من خلال تنظيف السطح والبدء فى ازالة كافة العوائق والمخلفات التى قد تؤثر باى شكل من الاشكال
    شركة عزل اسطح بالمدينة المنورة
    على اعمال العزل الحرارى او المائى لذلك نحن نقوم من خلال فريق عمل عزل اسطح المنازل بتنظيف الاسطح جيدا قبل البدء فى عمليات العزل للاسطح ومن ثم يتم البدء فى اجراء اعمال العزل الحرارى والمائى معا حيث ان خبراتنا وقدراتنا تجلعنا ننصحكم بعدم الاعتماد على نوع واحد من انواع العزل بل لابد من اتمام العزل الحرارى والمائى معا لضمان اتمام عمليات عزل الأسطح على اكمل وجه وباحسن صورة فنحن نضمن لكم من خلال اجراء اعمال العزل الحرارى بالطبقات الخاصة به بعدم تسرب اى سخونه للجو او الحرارة الى الاماكن والعقارات الخاصة بكم
    عزل اسطح بالمدينة المنورة
    بشكل نهائى تام ولفترات كبيرة قادمة كذلك اعمال العزل الرطوبة او المائى التى تقوم بها شركة العزل تضمن لكم عدم وجود اى تسربات للمياه او الرطوبة للاسطح من جراء السيول والامطار الشديدة.

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