الأحد، 23 أكتوبر 2011

Pharaoh Tutankhamun

Tutankhamun was a pharaoh of Egyptian family of eighteen in the history of ancient Egypt, and Pharaoh of Egypt of 1334 BC to 1325. M. In the era of the modern state. Tutankhamun is the most famous pharaohs, for reasons not related to the achievements made ​​or won by wars, as is the case with many of the Pharaohs; but for other reasons are important, historically it is the most important discovery of his tomb and treasures in full without any damage. The mystery surrounding the circumstances of his death, many considered that the death of Pharaoh at a very early age is not unusual, especially with the presence of traces of fractures of the thigh bone and skull, and the marriage of his minister from his widow after his death, declaring himself Pharaoh. All of these mysterious events, and heavy use of the myth of the curse of the pharaohs associated with the tomb of Tutankhamun that were used in movies and video games have made Tutankhamen months Pharaohs of the mysteries and unanswered questions considered some of the oldest in the history of assassinations

Tutankhamen was 9 years old when he became Pharaoh of Egypt and his name in ancient Egyptian means "living image of the god Amun", a large ancient Egyptian gods. Tutankhamun lived in a transitional period in the history of ancient Egypt, where he came after Akhenaten, who tried to unite the gods of ancient Egypt in the form of the One God. It was in his return to the worship of multiple gods of ancient Egypt. His tomb was discovered in 1922 in the Valley of the Kings by British archaeologist Howard Carter. This discovery and the latest media frenzy and widespread in the world.
 
The origins of Tutankhamun's grandfather King Omnhotپ the third that gave us one of the largest of his wives Queen Tiye his son Amenhotep IV, known as Akhenaten, married Akhenaten, Queen Nefertiti and his wife was the main addition to the secondary wife named Kiya; and which is probably the mother of Tutankhamun, has announced Supreme Council of Antiquities said in April 2010 that, based on DNA tests known acronym DNA show that Tutankhamun was the son of King Akhenaten

 Tutankhamun became king of Egypt as a child after the death of his brother Smonkh Ka Ra, He married Essen Ankh Amoun
 
Ang Amon Tut died in mysterious circumstances and unknown, to rule after his minister and former Aye, who married the widow of Ankh Amun Essen of Tutankhamen
During the reign of Tutankhamun, began a revolution against the Tel el-Amarna pharaoh Akhenaten, who previously moved the capital from Thebes to his new capital furnace sister queens and try to unite the gods of ancient Egypt, including the multi-god Amun in the form of the one God Aten. In the year 1331 BC. Of any m in the third year of the rule of Tutankhamun, who was 11 years and the impact of the Minister, which would raise the ban on the worship of the gods

There is a belief that the death of Tutankhamun was not for reasons satisfactory, but it may be a result of the assassination of the Minister Khپrkhپro Ra Eye Ptdberha and there is plenty of evidence supplied by the believers in this theory, for example, marriage minister Khپrkhپro Ra Eye of the widow of Tutankhamun where he found the seal of Pharaonic bears the name of any and Ankh Sun Amun widow of Tutankhamun and also there is a letter sent Ankh Essen Amon widow of Tutankhamun, the king of the Hittites, asking him to send one of his sons for the purpose of marrying her after the death of her husband and the king of the Hittites to send one of his sons to marry the widow of Tutankhamun Amon but he died before it enters the land of Egypt, and there is a belief that he was assassinated probably masterminded by the Minister Khپrkhپro Ra Aye, who apparently had been planning to seize the throne of Egypt, so he killed King Tutankhamun and the son was killed King of the Hittites, but these hypotheses and no conclusive evidence to prove all of these theories

It is worth mentioning that the historical evidence indicates the presence of ministers of Tutankhamun either of them that were mentioned and the other was named Horemheb There is archaeological evidence confirms that after the death of Tutankhamun received the Minister Aye reins of power for a short period to be replaced by the Second Minister of Horemheb, who was in his destruction of most of the evidence of the reign of Tutankhamun and Aye and the minister confirm this for some conspiracy theory and the fact that the death of Tutankhamun from malaria that was prevalent in the south.

 For a long time was the cause of the death of Tutankhamun, a controversial issue and there were a lot of conspiracy theories which suggest the idea that he did not die, but was killed in the assassination. On March 8, 2005, and as a result of the use of visualization Alhariha three-dimensional three-dimensional CT scans on the mummy of Tutankhamun, said archaeologist of Egypt, Zahi Hawass, that there was no evidence that Tutankhamun had been subjected to the assassination and said the hole in the skull does not belong to the cause received a blow on the head as it was previously thought, but were the events of this slot after death for the purpose of embalming and the ills of Zahi Hawass, the fraction in the bone left thigh, which has long been linked to the theory of the assassination as a result of a broken femur he suffered Tutankhamun before his death and may be inflammation resulting from this break may have caused his death.

Showed the analysis of modern also said that the bone roof oral cavity of Tutankhamun was not complete and the height of Tutankhamen 170 cm and the length accidental skull larger than the length of natural, which many historians proposal disease Marfan's syndrome Marfan's syndrome as a cause of early death and this case genetic transfer by autosomal dominant genes.
 
The final report of the Group of archaeologists uncovered that the cause of death was blood poisoning as a result of fracture in the femur in which he was Tutankhamun, which led to Alگanگran Gangrene, which is a cell death and tissue degradation as a result of secretion of enzymes from the muscles of dead due to lack of oxygen to the blood

Before this report, there were attempts to find out the cause of death using X-rays X-rays on the mummy of Tutankhamun at the University of Liverpool and the University of Michigan in 1968 and 1978, respectively, and reached both universities to discover the cloud under the skull of Tutankhamun from the back, which was interpreted Knsep in brain, leading to the spread of the hypothesis that he had received a blow to the head led to bleeding in the brain and death
In a study published in March 2010 showed that the cause of death of Tutankhamun is suffering from malaria and complications from a broken leg, as the study pointed to the existence of some genetic diseases caused by inherited genetic defect in the family.

The so-called Valley of the Kings, located on the west bank of the River Nile near Thebes for a period of 450 years during the reign of the modern state from the date of the ancient Egyptians that spread of 1539 to 1075 BC as a tomb for the pharaohs of this period as there is in this valley rock, which has an area of ​​approximately 20,000 square meters 27 royal tombs belonging to three families, the family and the Egyptian eighteenth Dynasty nineteenth and twentieth Egyptian family was discovered to this day
 
Believed that the Valley has at least 30 other graves have not been discovered yet. Graves discovered in the Valley of the Kings so far and in chronological order for the rule of the pharaohs back to Thutmose I and Omnhotپ II and Tutankhamun and Horemheb are from the Egyptian family of eighteen, Ramses I, Seti I and Ramsey II and Aminmcis and the City II and Sptah they are from the Egyptian family nineteen and six Nachta, Ramses III and Ramses IV and Ramses V and Ramses IX of the Egyptian family who are twenty. There are other graves of the Pharaohs are still unknown attempts are under way to knowledge

The construction of the tomb of the pharaoh usually begins after the day of his inauguration Pharaoh of Egypt and the construction will take probably tens of years and the workers were using simple tools such as ax to dig grooves long and the formation of small rooms in the valley and over time there were tombs built over the graves, and the construction of tunnels and canyons of new lead mostly to the blockage of corridors leading to the tomb of the pharaoh older, the lack of systematic planning was a major reason that led to the survival of these treasures and not exposed to the theft of thousands of years.
 
In the November 4, 1922 when he was an archaeologist and specialist in the history of ancient Egypt, the British Howard Carter, the excavations at the entrance to the tunnel leading to the tomb of Ramses VI in the Valley of the Kings noticed a cellar large and continued exploration flour to be entered into the room, which includes the tomb of Tutankhamun was on the walls of the room containing the mausoleum fees great tell in the form of pictures the story of the departure of Tutankhamun to the world of the dead, and the scene was very good for the world of Howard Carter, who was seen to the room through a hole in his hand a candle and said to his assistant asked, "Can you see anything?" Fjaoppe Carter "Yes, I see great things

On February 16, 1923 Howard Carter (1874-1939) was the first person in more than 3000 years the land set foot room containing the ark of Tutankhamun. Note Carter and a wooden box with patterns inlaid with gold in the middle of the room and when he raised the fund noted that the fund was covering second fund decorated with carvings inlaid with gold and when he lifted the second fund noted that the second fund was covering the fund Third restaurant with gold and when you raise third fund Carter arrived to the sarcophagus which was covered with a thick layer of stone carved in the form of a statue of Tutankhamun, and when rising to this cover stone Carter arrived to the coffin of the principal, who was in the form of a statue of Tutankhamun was the golden coffin covered coffins Gold Sponsors others in the form of statues of the Pharaoh, the young man.

Met with Howard difficulty in lifting the shroud Golden III, who was covering the mummy of Tutankhamun for the mummy, think Carter that put the shroud to the heat of the sun the summer of Egypt scorching will be enough to separate the shroud golden mummy, but his attempts failed and forced the latter to cut the shroud golden in half to reach the mummy which was wrapped in layers of silk, after the removal of the shroud is made of cloth and found the mummy of Tutankhamun, the whole decorated from necklaces, rings and the crown, sticks, and were all of pure gold, to remove these artifacts had excavation team to the separation of the skull and bones of major joints and after the removal of ornaments team brought the installation of the structure bone of the mummy and placed in a wooden coffin.

 The importance of a set of King Tutankhamun to many reasons; First, the treasure of King Tutankhamun is the most complete treasure royal was found not unprecedented, as it consists of three hundred and fifty-eight pieces, including the golden mask wonderful and three coffins in the form of rights, one of pure gold and the other two of wood doctrine. Second, that the luggage back to the family of eighteen months and the Golden Age of the modern state, where the country has opened up the regions of the ancient Near East through military campaigns and trade relations from the export and import of resources and manufactured products and the activity of the people of crafts and artists.

  Finally; that such an array may have been in Egypt, and shows how grave was the royal equipped and is there luggage everyday life puppets and toys, and then a set of furniture unfinished, tools and equipment of war, and statues of the gods concerning the burial of the king and lead him from the rituals, and with the trumpet of Tutankhamen's famous made of silver and another of copper, and all these contents now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. IV of this treasure, or an array learn a lot from the life of the king and his love of hunting and its relationship to his wife "Ankh teeth of Amun", which is believed to be his relative, as well as to know the most important work and his entourage, and finally the throne only one who came to us from the civilization of the ancient Egyptians

 

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