الجمعة، 21 أكتوبر 2011

Mayan civilization

Mayan civilizations of the mission, a very old time

Is the name of the Maya civilization of Guatemala and the northern parts of Mexico, where tropical forests, Honduras, El Salvador, these areas are home to the people of the Mayan Indians that culminated years 700 BC.. He was the arrival of the Spaniards and Europeans to the Americas led to the destruction of this civilization.

Features of the Maya civilization has evolved slowly over years and years 700 m 300 m, and called this period, what has been traditional in the life of the Maya. With the beginning of this period, those who speak the Mayan language, live in three adjacent regions of Central America and eastern and southern Mexico

Almioyun was first practiced his sons farming people, and live in small villages scattered in a small roofed houses.

This civilization reached its peak year 700 BC. M. And to escape the old empire with the seventh century BC. M, particularly in the southern cities because of the diseases, wars and famines and climate. In the year 1000 BC. M. The empire of the Maya and modern, were stronger than they were in the past appeared in the new towns and Yukktan Otza but most of these cities extinct. In 300 m appeared the traditional civilization of the people of the Mayan civilization and has become complicated since 300 m - 900 m, where the major cities of the independent city politically and Banic Tikal and Piedras and Ngrass and Kuban
In the eighth century and the nineteenth century, began the Mayan civilization classical decline, and the abandonment of the population of cities in the plains of the Interior, War and the failure of agricultural land to cover the needs of the population and drought, is what is believed to be the cause of its decline, and there is archaeological evidence indicates that war, famine, revolutions, internal ruling class and the nobles prevailed in several parts in the interior.
Spaniards began to control the territory within the limits of the Maya, 1520, and some areas have resisted desperately, and the other kingdoms of the Maya Itza kingdom, was subject to the Spaniards, even in 1697 AD.

Famous Mayan civilization since the fourth century until the coming of the Spaniards and the establishment of the pyramids, temples and above the peaks of housing priests, also famous for pottery, who was in the form of cylindrical cups her pregnant and with three legs and colorful bowls.
The writings of the Maya and the work of graphic Alfiresc (Alavrsk). In western Panama have found traces of gold and pottery, were also found on the tombs of their
Known as the Mayan civilization's writing (hieroglyphics) as defined Calendar 613, and the Mayan year 18 months 20 days each month. The addition of years 5 days mismanage the exercise of religious rites.
Knew the account was a sophisticated division points and five units of rod Twenty-Hilal and were taking forms of human and animal numerical units

The ancient Mayan empire was characterized by its buildings and public houses of senior men and the priests that had been building stones and also famous for the large Bmdnha Kcolan in Honduras, and some cities build walls around it, and the streets were unpaved and paved roads linking major cities.
Did not know Maya vehicles with the calf did not use animals to carry the weight but they were carrying to trade on their backs, combined with a rope hanging over the chest or front or take them in small boats, coastal waters and rivers are made of hollow trunks of the trees after their discharge from the drilling

Follow the Mayan writing system is complex, write letters like a hieroglyphic hieroglyphic, and they write down their observations and astronomical calculations and calculation of the calendar and write Onsabhm and history, and writing was a mixture of avatars glyphs which represent entire words can be read and pronunciations. The recorded scripts engraved on stone pillars and altars altars temples and thresholds for doors, balconies and roof beams, or painted on ceramic pots or in the books made ​​from the bark of trees

Were planting seeds in a hole Ihvrunha sticks of wood, paint brushes, and then they Bmarson techniques for cultivation expanded and continuous, and follow the method of intensive farming and crop rotation and fertilizer use, and they were planting gardens around the houses and balconies.
The animals llamas, dogs, the main crop was corn, beans and Alavakado, chilies, papaya, pineapple and cocoa, as well as they grow potatoes and tomatoes, and eucalyptus trees, coca
Cocoa drink was a favorite after the addition of water and a hot pepper, and a woman grinding corn Barahy stone and made ​​him a favorite drink or Takbzh Kkaakh over the hot slab of clay

The Almioyun drink fermented honey and the bark of it (peel) trees Albulh balche, and they were hunting rabbits, deer and turkeys to eat their meat, and raise turkeys, ducks and dogs as pets indoors. And eat the fish after the catch
Comfort during work were making stone tools, clay figurines and small and engraved gems and Ajdlon the ropes and make baskets and mats. The women made ​​pottery with colored filaments wrapped in mud and woven from cotton fibers gowns, shirts, supportive men Estrua by their nakedness. They use the bark of wild fig trees as wallpaper, which was used in ceremonial purposes
The kings are called title Colaho k'ul ahau and meaning of the ruling Grand and the Bible because the king had a political and religious power. The kings ruled by a hereditary ruling council, but their power collapsed after the emergence of the religious establishment, which was for the priests in their authority, was to rule all The King of town is the priest

The rich elite entertainers and the public's poor Medkaan. The nobles lived in houses built of carved stone and plaster walls of the fees, and the nobles of the dead buried in the basement of a stone with their collection of pottery and precious stones, and sometimes was placed with a human sacrifice to serve them after death.
Community was mostly Mayan peasants Khrajhm villagers perform two thirds of the ruling class and fun to work with them, and the women and Emctun Aitiln their hair and hairstyle were characterized class of women in society, and be wearing embroidered blouses and Kelchibat

Was Almioyun men and women tattooed Izinon masterly drawing. There were domestic slaves and criminals. Slave trade was prevalent, especially the poor and that they are selling themselves in the slave markets. They were either working in forced labor or slaughter Kodahi buried with their masters to serve them after death.
Communities were living Mayan tribal settlements and their heads were also hereditary rulers, and they were ruled by their political and spiritual abilities, where he was believed to have the ability to communicate super natural powers. And their families were among those representing the upper class. And there was a general council of the wise men and the tribes comprising the heads of tribes to manage their own affairs, political and religious

 Ancient agricultural peoples as a whole was Almioyun first worship the gods of agriculture as God the God of rain and corn, and they offer a sacrificial offerings to Atoddoa them. The ancient astronomers may have noticed the movements of the sun, moon, planets, and made ​​their calendar through astronomical calculations and observations of the celestial bodies.
The observations of astronomers predict Tbasharham events and happy hours in their life, especially for agriculture or war. Pyramids and mound-like hills, made ​​of stones and rubble above the summit altars altars or thatched temples, were placed in the heart of the settlements to the priests offer sacrifices sacrifices to the gods above. This set up a large pyramids at the site of El Mirador Almirador in the lowlands of Guatemala, and one of the huge buildings of the ancient Maya

In the year 400 BC. M. Became the center Almirador inhabited and chair of the powerful chiefdom chiefdom. During the passage of time pre-era traditional Mayan stones used in construction, and were using stone Aloobsidian Obsidian (Flint), a soft volcanic rock, and was brought from the highlands of Guatemala, Vsnawa him weapons, and instruments and sculptures
300 m in the year. Featured traditional civilization of the Maya people, and has become a complex civilization since 300 m - 900 m, where the major cities of the independent city politically and Banic Tikal and Piedras and Ngrass and Kuban. And he was the king of the rule of every city is a priest. Referees had their pictures embossed on ICQ No stelae (see: Stella) of the rock, carrying weapons and trying to capture each other to bring a sacrifice to the sacrificial ritual and political purposes. They are destroying parts of the cities, especially the frontier festive temples, but this was not affecting the population and the economy in the same city.

 The city-states fought each other on a small scale does not exceed raids blitz and then reverting Alserba withdrawal, and most of the attackers were from the nobility.
In the low-lying areas the land of the Maya built large cities and stable where she inhabited who were paying tribute in the form of goods or work in the construction of temples, palaces, courtyards, water tanks and bridges the top above the swamp, and they conceal in their hearts and digging ceilings, floor and walls Bmona paste limestone red. The sculptors engraved on stone columns and news history of the families of the rulers and their wars and victories there

.The internal trade flourishing between the regions of the Maya, where the roads were scattered through the facilitation of transport and communications, and goods were exchanged crops ceramic blades tropical birds, cotton yarn, stone Aloobsidon and crushed salt and dye red drying insect cochineal scarlet color, and incense from resin trees Kopal and leopard skin, honey, wax and yarn cotton and smoked deer meat and dried fish, and the people selling goods in barter or buy cocoa grains, which were used as currency in buying and selling

The multiple gods of the Maya god was the Great (Hounnap ku) Creator of the world, and was the most important gods. And God (Aetzmna) sky god of the heavens and the owner of the day and night, and sends rain and the patron of writing and medicine, and his worship was confined to the priests, and his appearance is to support the royal family and supporting it. And the God of corn (plant) (on Cox) and the gods of the four gods of rain Chx. God and all of them refers to one side of the four cardinal a cardinal direction and has a special color. The women work crew builds a god of the rainbow (X cripple), which was linked to healing and the birth of children and breast-feeding.

Consider all the Mayan goddess (Xstubb) goddess of suicide because they believe that suicide bombers go private in the sky.
Almioyun was practicing rituals and celebrations of the Mass for the residents of these gods in the first year Mayan in July or in a state of emergency as in famines and droughts, epidemics and drought. They were gathered in a public square to honor the gods and put the feathers above the doors of the arena. The groups of men and women put their clothes over their heads and feathers, bells, small hands and feet when the rhythm of the dance arena drums and flutes and the sounds of trumpets. The worshipers were drinking a popular beverage, and some participants were taking LSD of human sacrifice

 The Al-Ahram stone temples, the temple was decorated Banakec internal decree or elaborate designs and forms, which is covered vertical slab of stone engraved also known as custom roof roof comb. Interface and the temple decorated with stone arches Pintoaouat the distinctive corbeled arches. It was all praises arc of stone and every room was extended beyond the room underneath, and set aside the bow was linked with a stone keystone decade over them. He was called before the altar of incense smoke, which was burned in censers pottery, and the devotees offering gifts of corn, fruits, birds, fishing, and the blood that was worshiper obtained by piercing the lips or tongue or penis Bmharraz.
Was the ultimate honor of Maya offering human victims of children and slaves and prisoners of war. The victim was painted blue and killed over the top of the pyramid in the ceremonial ritual to beat him with arrows until death or after restriction forearms and legs, while the priest find his chest with a sharp knife is a sacred stone flint to clinch the heart to give an offering, and the leaders were prisoners of the enemy brought a victim after you kill them with axes central ceremony of the ritual .

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