الجمعة، 21 أكتوبر، 2011

Civilization of Mesopotamia

Civilization of Mesopotamia of the greatest civilizations has left us some great effects
'Mesopotamia or Mesopotamia (Mesopotamia) (in Greek Μεσοποταμία, "Misoپautamaa", ie Mesopotamia) Mesopotamia in southwestern Asia were among the first centers of civilization in the world. It is located currently in Iraq between the Tigris and the Euphrates. The most famous civilizations of Sumer and Akkad is, Babylon, Assyria and the Chaldeans, which originated from Iraq.

With a booming civilizations in Mesopotamia and in times of simultaneous and successive occupied the surrounding land occupying the east parts of Iran and specifically Elam (now the province of Khuzestan, known as the Arab Stan) and occupied the west and Syria to reach Palestine, where the Babylonian captivity under Nebuchadnezzar. After devitalized Nebuchadnezzar passed civilization of Mesopotamia in the era of decadence while originated forces civilization Persians Vtm occupation of Babylon and beyond Babylon by Cyrus and became Kotaisfon (now known as the cities) southeast of Baghdad, the capital of the horse until he came to the Islamic conquest at the hands of Omar ibn al-Khattab. With the passage of the years under the banner of Islam, Baghdad became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, which was considered the golden generation of Islam. In 1919, Iraq announced the emergence of autonomy for the country after independence from Ottoman rule.

The need for defense and irrigation of the motives that have helped shape the first civilization in Mesopotamia, by inhabitants of ancient Mesopotamia and they fenced their towns and D channels. Years after 6000 BC. M. Settlements have emerged that have become cities in the fourth millennium BC. M. The oldest human settlements there Uruk Tel alliance in Syria, where he was held by the temples of brick and clay were decorated Bmchgullac metal and stones and invented the cuneiform writing.
 
  The Sumerians are responsible for the culture of the first there and then spread north to the Upper Euphrates, the most important Sumerian cities that have arisen at the time of the Yezidi izd Perhaps this is due to the Yazidi religion is currently in Iraq and Kish, and Larsa, Ur and Literature. In the year 2330 BC. M. They seized the Acadians of the Semitic peoples were among the country between Alnehrbn was the first king Sargon (2335 BC. M. --2 279 BC. M.) Founded the kingdom of Akkad and replaced Akkadian language replaced Sumerian. Acadians remained the rule until the drop Jawtyon in 2218 BC. M. They are tribes of the eastern hills. After a while the back of the third era of the city of Ur and the rule of most of Mesopotamia

 Then came the Elamites destroyed Ur and 2000 BC. M. And controlled most of the ancient cities did not develop something that came up from Babylon and Hammurabi united the country for a few years late in his reign. But Amuriyah family came to power in Assyria in the north. Enable the Hittites from Turkey from the state drop the Babylonians Aakbhm immediately to the Kushites for four centuries. Then captured by the Almitaon (the people are called anti-Semitic often Hurion name or Alihuraaon) coming from the Caucasus was called and remained as Mesopotamia for centuries. But after the year 1700 BC. M. Deployed in large numbers across the north in all of Anatolia. And appeared in the north of Assyria Mesopotamia and North Eastern Kingdoms, and defeated the Assyrians Almitanien and seized the city of Babylon in 1225 BC. M. They reached the Mediterranean in 1100 BC. M.

Mesopotamia, including the land between the Tigris and the Euphrates, both of which have their source in the mountains of Armenia in modern Turkey. Both rivers fed by many tributaries, and the entire water system feeding the river a vast mountainous area. Roads in Mesopotamia usually follow the Euphrates because the banks of the Tigris River are usually severe and difficult. Semi-arid climate of the region with over a vast desert in the north, which gives way to the square area of ​​6,000 miles of swamps, lakes, mudflats, and the banks of reeds in the south. In the far south of the Euphrates and Tigris unite and pour in the Persian Gulf.

 Arid environment, ranging from the northern regions of rain-fed agriculture, to the south in terms of irrigated agriculture is necessary if the excess amount of energy returned on energy invested can be obtained. Irrigation with the help of high surface water, groundwater, and melting snow from the high peaks of the Zagros Mountains and from the Armenian highlands, the source of the Tigris and the Euphrates, who's giving an area its name. Usefulness of irrigation depends on the ability to mobilize enough work for the construction and maintenance of channels, and this, since ancient Alozl, has helped in the development of urban settlements and centralized systems of political power.
  Agriculture throughout the region have been completed by grazing nomadic, carrying Bedouin Saknoa tents herds of sheep and goats (and later camels) from pasture river in the dry summer months, and out into the territory of grazing season on the edge of the desert in the rainy season in winter. Region generally lack the stone construction, precious metals, timber, and therefore historically relied on long-distance trade of agricultural products to secure these materials from remote areas. In the marshlands in the south of the country, found a complex culture based on fishing and water since prehistoric times, and added to the cultural mix.

Breakdowns in the system periodically cultural and signed a number of reasons. Demand for labor has from time to time to increase the number of people that go beyond the limits of endurance capacity of the environment, and the consequences of a period of climate instability, the collapse of central government and the population decline can happen. Instead, the military weakness of the invasion from marginal hill tribes or nomadic herders led to periods of trade collapse and neglect of irrigation systems. Amount equal to, attracting a central tendencies between the U.S. meant that the central authority for the whole region, when imposed, has tended to be ephemeral, fragmented and local power to regional units smaller or tribal. These trends have continued to the present day in Iraq.

 The oldest known written language in Mesopotamia was Sumerian, a language isolated monolithic. Semitic dialects, speaking in Mesopotamia with early Sumerian. Later in the Semitic language, Akkadian, came to be the dominant language, although Sumerian was retained for administrative purposes, religious, literary, and scientific. Different varieties of Akkadian were used until the end of the Babylonian second. Then became Aramaic, which had become common in Mesopotamia, the regional administration official language of the Achaemenid Persian empire. Halt the use of Akkadian, but both the Sumerian and Akkadian were still used in temples for a few centuries.
 
Early Mesopotamia (around mid 4th millennium BC) cuneiform writing was invented. Cuneiform literally means "wedge-shaped", due to the Party of the triangle used to compress the pen marks on wet clay. Standardized form of each cuneiform sign appear that the evolution of the illustrations. The first ones (7 panels old) come from any - Anna very sacred courtyard dedicated to the goddess Inanna in Uruk, Level III, the building was described as a temple (c) of Hvar

Symbolic system of early cuneiform took many years to master. Therefore, only a limited number of individuals were appointed clerks are trained to read and write. It was not until the adoption of use on a large scale tomography of the text under the rule of Sargon that large parts of the population of Mesopotamia are not illiterate. Huge archives of texts were recovered from archaeological contexts of the schools of the ancient Babylonian printing, in which literacy published
 
At the time of Babylon, there were libraries in most towns and temples; such as Sumerian is "he who would excel in school clerks must wake up with the dawn." Women as men have learned to read and write, and Babylon Semitic, that included Marafhllgh extinct Sumerian, clips complex and intense

.Much of the Babylonian literature was translated from Sumerian origins, and the language of religion and law long continued to compact the ancient language of Sumer. Vocabulary, grammar, and translation between the lines equipped for the use of students, as well as comments on the ancient texts and interpretations of ambiguous words and phrases. Cross-Sectional words of the language was all arranged and unnamed, and detailed lists of them were drawn.

 
There are many Babylonian literary works that Anoaneha known to us. One of the most famous of these is an epic of Gilgamesh, in twelve books, translated from the original Sumerian by Sen - Liq - Aoninna, and arranged on the basis of order. Each section contains a story of adventure and one in the function of Gilgamesh. The whole story is the product of a compound, it is likely that some of the stories an added artificially to the central motif.
 
Babylonian astronomers were very interested in studying the stars and the sky, and most of them can predict the pre-coup the solar and lunar eclipses. I think people that everything had a purpose in astronomy. Most of these related to religion and omens. Astronomers in Mesopotamia had put a timetable of 12 months based on the cycles of the moon. Divided the year into two seasons: summer and winter. The emergence of astronomy, astrology, as well as Aerkh of this time

. .During the eighth and seventh century BC, Babylonian astronomers develop a new approach to astronomy. Altaata began studying philosophy dealing with the ideal nature of the universe early, and began work on the internal logic within their predictive planetary systems. This was an important contribution to astronomy and philosophy of science, and therefore some scientists have suggested this new approach to the scientific revolution, the first of this new approach to astronomy was adopted and further developed in astronomy in Greek and Hellenistic.
 
In time, Greyhound and Barthe, astronomical reports were of a scientific nature accurately; is uncertain how many previously developed their knowledge and their methods have been developed. Babylonian development of methods to predict the movements of the planets is a key link in the history of astronomy.
 
Astronomer Babylonian only known that the support form the sun - a central movement of the planets was Seleucus of Seleucia (190 BC Seleucus is known from the writings of Plutarch. Is supported the theory of a central sun as the Earth spins on its axis, which in turn revolve around the sun. And according to Plutarch, Seleucus system has demonstrated the sun - a central, but it is not known what arguments he used

 Astronomy Babylonian is the basis for most of what has been done in astronomy Greek and Hellenistic and Indian astrology, classical in astronomy Sassanian, Byzantine, Syrian, and in the science of Islamic astronomy in the Middle Ages, and in astronomy in Central Asia and Western Europe
 
Use the people of Mesopotamia Steny two tenths numeral system (base 60). This is the source of the current hour, consisting of 60 minutes and 24 hours a day, as well as the circle of 360 degrees. Sumerian calendar also measured weeks of seven days per week. This mathematical knowledge was used in making maps

Babylonians may have known the general rules for measuring spaces. They measured the circumference of a circle as three times the diameter and the area as one-twelfth the bounding box, which would be true if B were estimated as 3. Taken as an output volume of a cylinder to strike al Qaeda and the length, but the volume of frustum pyramid or box making incorrectly as a result of the high and hit half of all the rules. Also, there was a recent discovery in which the board uses the i , or pi) value of 3 and 1 / 8 (3.125 instead of 3.14159 ~). Babylonians also known penchant Babylonian, measuring a distance equal to about seven miles (11 km) a day. This measurement for distances eventually was converted to a mile - and culminal user to measure the travel of the sun and, therefore, represents the time

 The oldest Babylonian texts on medicine Taudely period of ancient Babylon in the first half of the second millennium BC. Most of the Babylonian medical writings and large-scale, is the diagnostic manual written by a doctor Esagil - Ken - apli of Borsippa, during the reign of the Babylonian king Adad - barrage - Adena (1069-1046 BC).
 
Along with medicine ancient Egypt today, the Babylonians introduced the concepts of diagnosis, expectations of medical, physical examination, and prescription. In addition, the diagnostic manual methods of treatment, treatment and aetiology and the use of the experimental method, logic and rationality in diagnosis, expectations and treatment. Text contains a list of medical symptoms and there are often detailed empirical observations along with logical rules used in the combination of symptoms Almlouhza on the body of the patient with the diagnosis and prognosis

.Symptoms and diseases of the patients treated through therapeutic means such as bandages, Alchrimatu grain. If the patient can not be cured physically, the Babylonian physicians often they rely on exorcism to cleanse the patient from any curse. Evidence for the diagnosis Esagil - Ken - apli was based on a set of logical axioms and assumptions, including the modern view that through the examination and inspection of the patient's symptoms, it is possible to determine the patient's disease, its causes, Future developments, and opportunities for healing the patient.
 
Esagil - Ken - apli discovered a variety of ailments and diseases, and symptoms described in the Guide to the diagnosis. These include the symptoms for many varieties of epilepsy and related ailments in addition to their diagnosis and prognosis
 
The people of Mesopotamia invented many techniques including metal and brass works, glass and making lamps, textiles, flood control, water storage and irrigation

They were also one of the first peoples of the Bronze Age in the world. Earlier they used copper, bronze and gold, and later used the iron. Palaces were decorated with hundreds of kilograms of these metals is very costly. As well as the use of copper, bronze and iron armor as well as for different weapons such as swords, daggers, spears, wands and warlike.
 
The oldest type of pumps is the Archimedes screw (mandolins), the first is used by Sennacherib, king of Assyria, to water systems in the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and Nineveh in the seventeenth century BC, and later described in more detail by Archimedes in the third century BC. Later during the Sassanid Empire or Parthia, have been making a battery of Baghdad, which may be the first batteries, in Mesopotamia

.Religion in Mesopotamia is the first to be registered. The people of Mesopotamia believed that the world was a flat disk surrounded by a space large and pierced, and, above all, Paradise, as they believed that the water was everywhere, top, bottom, sides, and that the universe was born from this enormous sea. In addition, the religion of Mesopotamia with the multiplicity of gods.
 
Although the belief described above has been in circulation among the people of Mesopotamia, there were also regional differences. The Sumerian word for that is that - so, which refers to the god and goddess Ki Ann. Their son was Enlil, the god of the air. They believe that god Enlil was the most powerful deity. Was the chief god of the gods or Pantheon group, as was the Zeus of the Greeks and the Romans had Jupiter. Sumerians also posed philosophical questions, such as: Who are we?, Where are we?, How we got here?. They tied the answers to these questions to explanations provided by the gods

Hundreds of graves have been excavated in parts of Mesopotamia, revealing information about burial customs in Mesopotamia. In the city of Ur, most people were buried in family graves under their houses (as is the case in Catalhuyuc), along with some of their property. A few were found wrapped in mats and carpets. Children of the deceased and placed in a "tractor" significant that have been developed in the church family. Other debris were found buried in a cemetery in general for the city. 17 found in the tomb with a very valuable pieces in their minds; assumed that these were graves of ownership

Some of the songs written for the gods but many were written to describe important events. Although the music and songs were entertaining kings, was also enjoyed by ordinary people who love to sing and dance in their own homes or in the market. Songs were sung to children who were Amrrunha to their children later. Thus songs were passed through several generations to be written by someone. These songs provided a means to scroll through the centuries very important information about the historical events that eventually reached the contemporary historians.

Oud is a small musical instrument, with Uttar. The oldest pictorial record of the promises of return to the Uruk period in Southern Mesopotamia more than 5000 years ago. Is the cylindrical seal is now in the British Museum and acquired by Dr. Dominique Cologne. Image depicting female ducks with their tools on a boat and play the right hand. This machine appears hundreds of times in the history of Mesopotamia and again in ancient Egypt after the Eighteenth Dynasty in the differences and varieties of long and short neck.
 
Oud is an ancestor of the lute Eurovision machine name is derived from the Arabic lute 'wood', which is probably the name of the tree that was making them lute. (Name in Arabic, with the definite article, is the source of the word 'lot'.)
 
Hunting was popular among Assyrian kings. Boxing, wrestling show in fees in many cases, and a form of polo was probably popular, with men sitting on the shoulders of other men rather than on horses. They also played "Major", a game similar to rugby, but they play a ball made ​​of wood. They also played a game similar to the game Alcinat the table, now known as "the royal game - Acsplo

Mesopotamia's history became more and more patriarchal society, where men, who was much stronger than women. Thorchled Jacobsen, and others suggested that the community of Mesopotamia was ruled by the early "Council of Elders," which was which women and men equally represented, but with the passage of time, the status of women Hui, and more men. As for education, only the atomic property and the sons of the rich and professionals such as scribes, physicians, temple administrators, and so on, they went to school.

  Most of the boys were studying the profession of their father or were Eptdúa to learn the profession by Abbaah. Girls had to stay home with their mothers to learn housekeeping and cooking, and to care for younger children. Some of the children were helping to crush the grain, or cleaning birds. In something unusual for this time of history, women in Mesopotamia have had rights. Had a right to own property, and if they have good reason, to obtain a divorce

Geography of Mesopotamia is that such agriculture can only be achieved through irrigation and good drainage, which has had a profound impact on the development of civilization in Mesopotamia. The need for irrigation led the Sumerians and later Akkadians to build cities along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and branches of these rivers. Some major cities such as Ur and Uruk, took root on the tributaries of the Euphrates River, while others, particularly for the Gach, built on the branches of the Tigris River. Rivers and provided more of the benefits of fish (used both for food and enrichment), the reeds and mud (building materials).

With the irrigation of food supply in Mesopotamia was very rich with the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which form the northeastern part of the Fertile Crescent, which also included the Jordan River and the River Nile. Although the land closest to rivers was fertile and good for crops, portions of the land away from the water was dry and largely uninhabitable. This is why the development of irrigation was very important for settlers of Mesopotamia. Other innovations of Mesopotamia, including water control through the use of dams and canals. The early settlers of fertile land in Mesopotamia Astkhaddmot wooden plows to soften the soil before planting crops such as barley, onions, grapes, turnips and apples. Settlers in Mesopotamia were the first people Alzbn made ​​beer and wine.

 Although the river has ensured the continuity of life, are also destroyed by the frequent floods that swept the entire cities. Weather that is unpredictable in many cases, in Mesopotamia was difficult for farmers; destroyed crops in many cases, therefore, kept a backup sources of food such as cows and sheep. As a result of skill in the field of agriculture in Mesopotamia, not farmers rely on slavery to complete the work in the farms allocated to them, with some exceptions. There were many risks involved in making the process of slavery (escape / slave rebellion

Geography of Mesopotamia had a profound impact on political development in the region. Among the rivers and streams, the Sumerian people built the first cities along with the irrigation channels that were separated by vast areas of open desert or swamp, where nomadic tribes roamed. Communication between the isolated cities was difficult and sometimes danger. And therefore each Sumerian city became a state - city, independent of the others, and protector of its independence. In some cases, one city might try to invade and unite the region, but these efforts have been resisted and failed for several centuries. As a result, the political history of Sumer is one of almost constant affairs. Eventually Sumer was unified by Ayanatam Eannatum, but uniformity was weak and failed to stay where Akkadians conquered Sumeria in 2331 BC. After only a generation later.

  When Assyria grew into an empire, was divided into small parts, called provinces. Each of these is named after major cities, like Nineveh, Samaria, Damascus and Arpad. They had a special governor, who was to make sure that everyone pay the tax due from him; it was called the soldiers of the war, and the supply of workers when building the temple. He was also responsible for the laws that are being applied. In this way it was easier to keep control of the empire such as Assyria. Although Cannon Babylon small country in the Sumerian period, it has grown significantly over the time of the rule of Hammurabi. Was known as the "law maker", and soon Babylon became one of the main cities in Mesopotamia. Was later called Babylonia, which means "gate of the gods." It also became one of the largest in the history of learning

 With the growth of city-states, their spheres of influence overlap, creating conflicts between city-states, especially over land and canals. These conflicts were recorded in tablets several hundreds of years before any major war - the first record of the war took place around 3200 BC but were not prevalent until the year 2500 BC. At this point included the war in the political system of Mesopotamia, where they can act as an arbitrator for a neutral city, two cities competing. This helped in the formation of associations between the cities, which led to the countries of the region. When BC was created empires, they went to war more with foreign countries.

  King Sargon, for example conquered all the cities of Sumer, some cities in Mari, and then went to war with Syria, many of the walls of the Babylonian palaces decorated with images of successful battles and the enemy, whether desperately escaping, or hiding among the reeds. King in Sumer, Gilgamesh, was thought to be two-thirds god and one-third and only one human being. There are legendary stories and poems with him, which passed for many generations, because he has a lot of adventures, which was believed to be very important, and won many wars and battles

  

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