الجمعة، 21 أكتوبر 2011

Greek civilization

Of the most ancient world civilizations because of its history, civilization, the Greeks, or, Hellenism, the term refers to the historical period (from 750 BC to 146 BC), and culture that spread the Greek civilization in the Mediterranean, Eastern Europe and Asia, the integrated with local cultures.
 
Greeks wanted to configure the largest empire in the history of Asia and Europe after the seizure of Middle Persia and Babylon, India and the Levant, Egypt and North Africa has achieved this dream, their son Alexander. At the beginning of the fourth century BC. M. Macedonians began to influence the events in Greece and the Greeks, especially after the rivalry between Sparta and Athens.

The Persians Aalponhma against each other. The city of Athens and then an independent state and its parliament. In this era, the call to unite the Greeks and Macedonians to face the Persian threat. Aristotle was Alexander calling for this call for unity for the enslavement of peoples. And Aristotle was sending money to his teacher Flaton to send people to Asia to collect information and spy on the natural horse

Civilization emerged Greece Balkan Peninsula and the Gulf of the Aegean Sea in the northern coast of the Mediterranean mountain region of narrow plains, dotted with a group of small islands in the Aegean Sea. The impact site on the Greece civilization significant impact. It is close to the source of the ancient eastern civilizations "Egypt - Levant - Iraq - Vinkie as the islands of Crete and Cyprus, as the main crossing to connect the cultural and trade with those regions and in Asia Minor and the coast of North Africa. As well as the coast of Greece the west and the islands near it, as the western gate of Greece, including the migrants and traders carried civilization to the Italian peninsula,

 Thus originated the Roman civilization, and so the country's geographical location has helped the Greeks to act as the importer of the civilizations of the East and have a distributor for the rest of Europe. As well as the divided terrain, mountains high country the Greeks to a group of regions limited space and isolated because of the difficulty of communication between them, which led to the emergence of states around the major cities and important is on the each city to rely on themselves in terms of political, economic and competed these cities with each other and varied interests and conflicting goals .

  Has led nature of the mountainous country to the direction of her family to the sea as a means of communication as it was easy to install the Greek sea to bear the hardship of passing the highlands and then was the civilization of the Greeks civilization free trade, and the fleet and private fleet of the city of Athens a milestone in the Greek civilization, and have easy riding the sea from the bays, islands and peninsulas spread Greek coasts and around to the people of the country to travel to multiple destinations migrated to and settled or returned, including assets and ideas of other civilizations
Spread of the Kingdom of Muaria east of India to ancient Egypt, the West and from Turkey, north Syria and the entire south and is considered the greatest kingdoms of the Greeks in history. Existed Greece at the site distinct: emerged civilization Greece peninsula, the Balkans and the Gulf of the Aegean Sea in the northern coast of the Mediterranean region of mountainous plains narrow, scattered by a group of small islands in the Aegean Sea. The impact site on the Greece civilization significant impact.

  It is close to the source of the ancient civilizations of the East, "Egypt - Levant - Iraq" as the islands of Crete and Cyprus as a main crossing point for commercial and cultural contact with those bodies and the coast of Asia Minor and North Africa. As well as the coast of Greece West and nearby islands which serve as the western gate of Greece, including the carry traders and migrants civilization to the Italian peninsula, and thus originated civilization, the Romans, and so helped the geographical location Greece to act as the importer of the civilizations of the East and the distributor have the rest of Europe.

As well as the divided terrain, mountains high country the Greeks to a group of regions limited space and isolated because of the difficulty of communication between them, which led to the emergence of states around the major cities and important is on the each city to rely on themselves in terms of political, economic and competed these cities with each other and varied interests and conflicting goals .
 
  Has led nature of the mountainous country to the direction of her family to the sea as a means of communication as it was easy to install the Greek sea to bear the hardship of passing the highlands and then was the civilization of the Greeks civilization free trade, and the fleet and private fleet of the city of Athens a milestone in the Greek civilization, and have easy riding the sea from the bays, islands and peninsulas spread Greek coasts and around to the people of the country to travel to multiple destinations migrated to and settled or returned, including assets and ideas of other civilizations

 Greeks called the people themselves or Alakhien Alhelinyin, has appeared before the birth of their civilization Boukmsmih and fifty years ago and passed through three stages:

Greek civilization originated in the eighth century BC
Greeks were the first civilization on the land of small circular called "Cyclades" in the Aegean Sea. Population was growing grapes, olives, where grain and raise animals for the purpose of milk - meat. And were producing pots and statues of marble sculpture, the use of plant leaves and engravings made ​​from volcanic rock and bronze.
 
  After several centuries, came disaster for the owners of this city, the impact of a devastating earthquake followed by a volcanic eruption a huge burning most of the Cyclades, while flourished elsewhere, an island of Crete arose the oldest civilizations of the region in the islands located east of the Mediterranean Sea and then later moved to Greece and the island of Crete is the center and the foundation for this civilization, which included then the Aegean Islands, Rhodes and Cyprus and Greece. And returns the oldest traces of that civilization to three thousand years BC and lasted nearly two thousand years

,That civilization has been divided into three periods as stated. He was the name of this civilization civilization Alminoch relative to Minos, a king mentioned in the ancient myths that rule of the island of Crete. There were trade relations and cultural contacts between the owners of that civilization in Egypt, was transferred Alchrityon a lot about Egypt, I found the effects of Crete and Egypt, she found time and manufactures high CRETEIL found in the archeological sites in Egypt.
 
  At a time when civilization Cretan collapse and decay began to flourish civilization to the tribes migrated to the Balkan Peninsula (the southern part of Greece), after they were able to stabilize them for centuries, was not the Greeks first backs a united country that brought them together all under control, but were for themselves and their multi-state separate from each other and each state government and its laws, its army and perhaps the reason is that Greece mountainous country difficult to do a unified state where, but in spite of the independence of States, the Greek from each other, they were out of one of their religion and their culture and one

Classical Age (500 BC - AD / 323 BC - AD)
When the era of Almisinyin, solved a major crisis in Greece, even calling this era the dark period, which lasted for 400 years, so I think that people no longer remember how to write for the absence of any documents or signs of what they were doing. People imbued with a hunger began little by little, until they were determined to leave this land to search for new land saturation of their needs, Vzhbwaely coast of Asia Minor and the Aegean, they stopped at the land.
 
  In the eighth century BC the Greeks began reclaiming their culture and their prosperity and immigrants of whom have been deployed around the Black Sea to the north-east and the west to the south of Italy, until he reached their deployment to Spain and France, most of the migrants worked as farmers and a few of them cared pillar of Commerce. Began the stability of the Greeks when the producers by reference to Greece to liberate the shortage there, where the transformation of the Black Sea port in those days from the port of grain and trees to the port crowded with wine and olive oil, honey

By the sixth century BC, there were many cities as dominant in Greek affairs: Athens and Sparta. In ancient Greece, people speak one language and no more, and worship the same God and share the same clothes until the eighth century BC. Because of the separation of cities and divided by barriers of the sea or the mountains. Most cities Kothena Corinth and Sparta and its buildings knew their regions of high and surrounded by farmers who grow crops and raise animals.
 
  Each city now has a special system of government and ways of doing business, so they made for each city of the god to protect them especially from other cities, Phippnon his temple in the fortress of Athens, a Alokrbul. The ongoing battle between the cities where they were fighting each other, and most powerful cities in Greece at that time Athens and Sparta, which were in permanent conflict to the intensity of competition between them. But in time of need was healed of new respondents, for example, when the Persian invasion of their country did not find seemed to unite to defeat the invaders

 The era of civilization Sparta
Emerged in ancient Greece some cities, especially cities have significantly contributed in the construction of Greek civilization are the cities of Sparta and Athens. According to Greek mythology, is the founder of Sparta Akdeimun, son of the god Zeus and the gods Tajit, he called on the name of his wife, daughter Aorautas. I went to Sparta after the military regime that had to fight long wars with its neighbors, led by Athens, which fought a devastating war with them continued for a quarter century Albelopponih known wars, but Athens and Sparta soon united in 481 BC. M, although Hroppema
 
, When he made ​​the horse the direction of Greece, and was able to Athens addressed in the first campaign, but that the campaign of the Second Persian, was to destroy the army of Athens, except that the Spartans secured the withdrawal less the losses of the Army, the Athenian, strive by 300 of the bravest leaders of Sparta military led to Eonaides and stood at large Persian army until the army withdrew to Athens jars secure site

 The system of governance in Sparta is based on a democratic basis to some extent depends on the distribution of powers in the four elements: 1 - dual ownership of the individual so as not unique to the king and one sentence. 2 - Senate consists of 28 members (and required to be at least sixty years the member). 3 - a general assembly of all citizens when the male reached the age of thirty. 4 - Implementation of any cabinet officers, five elected by the people and hold each of them and his job for a period of one year. Between 740-720 BC the Mycenaean War I,
  Able to Sparta which expanded their territory to take over Fort Mountain Latium included Messina (west of Sparta), during the reign of King Tjubombus. And between 660-640 BC, a war Mycenaean second, with and was eighty years of Spartan's Messinia, there were people of Messinia against the Spartan government, and support them in their disobedience rulers of the Greek city-states in the north and east, which was at odds with Sparta.

When the greater the economic and political dislocations in Messinia and the loss of many of the Spartan land acquired after the first war, hastened Sparta to impose its influence in Messinia, and invented Alospartion In preparation for that war, tactics based on the gathered infantry battalion armed to all types of weapons (spears, swords, gears, armor, and shields the parties), and this tactic has spread in the wars in the world after that, after the Spartans. Sparta won a victory in the war apron, returned to the prestige of all the Greek cities, but making them a new state, a state does not know the war is
 
  Alosparti society was composed of three tribes, a male-dominated society, women are marginalized. And reared males between 14-20 years of age by the state and receive extensive military education, and the ages of 20-30 are enrolled in the army all of us, and who are the largest of the thirty clubs meet in the Men in the cities, and eating their meals together

Perhaps the reason PHP This militarism that the location of Sparta was far from the sea, not in front of a means to meet the increasing population, only the expansion in the surrounding country, making it the whip of torment to its neighbors, has been Sparta strong and in control of most of Greece thanks to their strength and their military for a period of two hundred years When he landed an exclamation of the people is falling, but no nation was saddened by it.
 
Reached Athens to the leadership of the Greek cities in the fifth century BC, since two thousand and five hundred years ago and reached a great amount of progress and civilization and is considered by historians of that period Tarichhaha brighter periods in the history of Athinabul not in the history of the Greeks as a whole

And Athens was the capital of a mountain a poor desolate with the exception of some of the canyons between the mountains where he grew wheat, grapes, olives and gave her the mountains a lot of minerals, stones, especially marble that made him the Athenians many of the statues also found the people on the shores of river mud pure made ​​him their vessels pottery has Awwadhm the sea for much of what Avckaddoh in their own land setting the their nature coast with the ports and bays, natural and cared Athenians trade much attention and reached to the invention of currency that helped recovery, the currency has facilitated the collection and storage of more than agricultural products or livestock and other tools of trade-off that was used for the exchange of Egypt and other ancient lands of the East.

 Perhaps most important, by Athens to humanity is the idea of ​​democracy, despite the different concept in our time, and the word democracy is made up of two syllables (Demos) and the sense of the people (Kratos) in the sense of any rule (Demos Kratos), a (rule by the people). However, there is no doubt that the in Athens and other Greek cities parliaments and to become a citizen has the right to express an opinion and participate in decision-making on all care about the back of legislators who enact laws and regulations put. There was a wide gap between the rich and the poor in Athens

 , Resorted to borrowing from the poor and the rich was the norm between it unable to pay the debt with high interest becomes a slave to the creditor and work in farms and sold into slavery. And continued to exhort the situation gets worse and the gap between rich and poor are growing and expanding to the eye, "Solon," a ruler on them. Solon was born in Athens to a noble family. He was known at first as a poet. The poems have a major role in urging the Athenians to recover the island of Salamis, which was under foreign hands for a long time. I lead the troops sent to recover the island. He has subjected rapidly. He was chosen after Arjona (NDP I) and was entrusted with the authority to change the laws.

And Athens was in dire need of political and economic change. The bulk of the wealth concentrated in the hands of a few influential citizens and farmers had been forced to mortgage their land to borrow money against the providers themselves and their families guarantees of religion. Solon issued a law abolishing all those debts and mortgages, and free those who have become slaves. He also amended financial systems, making it easier for foreign trade. The only amendment introduced by Solon in Athens Foreign trade is the version of law to prevent the export of grain.

Constitutional reforms of Solon returned, a division of citizens into four classes according to income. And allows citizens of all classes, to become members of the Legislative Assembly and in the civil courts. Solon was founded by a council of 400 people, in the performance of political authorities in Aleriobagus (Judicial Council) and established the People's Courts that citizens can plead and appeal against the decisions of state employees. Solon was kept on the conditions under which the old are entitled only to the top three layers of high-level public positions are entitled only to the top layer to take over the position of Alerkhoun. These conditions have been kept on any oligarchy and minority rule but the reforms of Solon was a step in the uncertain path of democracy.

It is said that Solon made ​​the Athenians to abide by its laws confer for 10 years. He then flew to the east and visited Egypt, where he stayed for a long time to brief the civilization, and when he returned after 10 years, found the country engaged in civil war and quickly took control of Bezistratos things. After his opposition Bezistratos, Solon retired and moved away from the public.

  

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