الجمعة، 21 أكتوبر، 2011

The beautiful city of Petra

The beautiful city of Petra, or rocks the city of the seven modern wonders of the world, Petra, also called goods, a historic city located in southern Jordan, 225 km south of the capital Amman to the west of the main road connecting the capital city of Amman and Aqaba.

The Petra of the most important archaeological sites in Jordan and in the world there is no parallel in the world recently won second place in the international competition for the Seven Wonders of which is about an entire city carved into the rock pink color (hence the name Petra means in Greek rock) (offset by in Nabatiyeh Rgimo) and Petra also known as the pink City relative to the color of the rocks that formed to build, a city resembled Matkon Citadel.

 Built by the Nabataeans in 400 BC and made ​​it their capital and in the vicinity of the city is Mount Aaron, who believes that he has the tomb of the Prophet Aaron, peace be upon him and the seven springs of Moses striking the rock with his staff Vtfjrt. Petra was selected as one of 7/7/2007. The new seven wonders of the world.

Was Petra, the capital of the Nabataeans and the most important cities of their kingdom, which lasted from 400 BC until 106 AD, has extended its borders from the coast of Ashkelon in Palestine in the west to the desert of the Levant in the east. And from the north of Damascus to the Red Sea in the south, a site of Petra Mediterranean civilizations Mesopotamia, the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt economic importance has held the State of the Nabataeans control of trade between the civilizations of these regions and their inhabitants and the trade caravans of up to loaded with spices and spices from southern Arabia and silk from Gaza, Damascus and henna from Ashkelon, glassware of Tyre and Sidon and the Pearl of the Persian Gulf

State of the end of the Nabataeans was by the Romans when Hasrōha and prevented by water years 105 and named it the Arab state. In the year 636 became Petra live on the rest of the population on agriculture, but the earthquake that hit 746/748 years and earthquakes dispersal of its people

 · With the start of flights Orientalists of the Arab world in the nineteenth century was the discovery of Petra in 1812 by the hands of Orientalist Swiss Johann Ludwig Barakaart who learned Arabic and studied Islam in Syria and came to Petra, claiming that he was Muslim from India to deny Islamic attire and its aim is to provide a sacrifice to the Prophet Aaron and thisallowed him to enter the local population rose-red city, and contained his book printed in 1828and known as the flights in Syria and the Holy Land pictures of Petra.
 One of the most famous drawings by Petra was the lithography painted by David Roberts of Petra and the Wadi Musa during his visit in 1839, and the more than twenty lithographic plate has been printed many of them, giving Petra fame. There are many of Petra paintings and other images dating back to the nineteenth century, which shows how the attention it has brought re-discovered on Europe at the time. Famous works of Petra a painting watercolors of the landscape of Petra to the artist Cheranz about 1840 and the first map of the manuscript of Petra in English to draw travelers to Apodi around the year 1830 and the pictures of Petra imaging Freight in 1830 [The width of the cabinet 28 meters and a height of 39.5 meters, and there are several statues of structural (remains of Nabatean)

And Petra carved in the rock and hiding behind the impenetrable barrier of mountains that barely compact porous have a mysterious charm. The traffic Balsik a corridor through a narrow aspect of high-rise height that barely allow the passage of the sun, provides a dramatic contrast with the magic to the next and suddenly opens into a natural square famous Treasury of Petra carved in the rock and glowing under the rays of golden sun.
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· There are many interfaces that entice the visitor throughout the ancient city, one monument leading to another teacher Bantoa distances. The overall size of the city and the beautifully carved facades is staggering and makes gives him an idea of ​​the level of creativity and industry of the Nabateans who made ​​Petra their capital more than 2000 years ago. It is their capital that could Nabataeans establish a network of caravan routes which brought spices, incense, myrrh, gold, silver and precious stones from India and the Arabian Peninsula, to be traded to the west.

  As a result of the wealth they acquired, they adorned their city with palaces, temples and arches. As you set off from the gate of the entrance to the city and the valley is quite wide open. This section is a narrow entrance door knows Siq. First Maatmr is set jinn which is about a group of three cubes of rock just to the right of the corridor and the crossing more through the slit visitor sees the tomb of obelisks carved out of the cliff in a moment turn the passage of a broad to a gap dark does not exceed a few feet and suddenly a few steps to get your first glimpse of the finest achievement of Petra (the Treasury) that appear to the eye under the hot sun and carved in the rock.

   The height of this interface is about 39.1 meters and a width about Oabulg 25.30 meters, and the length of the columns on the first floor of about 12.65 meters, and in the second floor of about 9 meters, and the jar above the height of the kiosk stands at 3.50 meters. Composed interface Treasury of two sections: the upper and the Department of basement, with the triangle the broken ring the building, consists of the lower part of the six columns, as the pillars of the center, separated from the wall, and column capitals of the first type "vegetable", and there are some differences between the shapes of plant crowns , and the columns above the millers decorated pairs of winged monsters, including vases, and their tails curled trunks is and interrelated, and both sides of the frieze on the face of highlights from the leaves of plants. Above the triangle shape (Pediment) solar disk between the horns and ears of wheat, a symbol to the gods Isis (Isis) the Egyptian, as we find in the middle of the face of the frieze from the leaves come out Alokanthus, has been distorted, and the top sides of the triangle stands a winged animal,

And found these forms influence of Egyptian civilization in terms of content, as we find when spaces side between the columns base topped with a carved, which is a human form standing in front of a horse, and was sculpted forms of horses and camels in the arts Nabatiyeh funeral is clear: to help them to transfer the deceased in his journey to after life. The upper part of the cabinet is composed of six columns and eight front columns of the background, which is attached to the walls and the capitals of the second kind "of plant
 
"In the middle of the interface we ring the building a roof italics in the form of tents, surmounted by a crown pillar and jar, and Alafrish higher, they are decorated with leaves different plant, and forms of pomegranates, grapes, pine, including the faces of human figures, and above the Alafrish aspects form the triangle Broken (Broken -Pediment). in addition to all of these motifs, we find between the columns front and rear, sculptures statues on the rules, has been distorted in a subsequent period, in the middle ring the building (Tholos) standing statue of the gods (Isis) with wheat, which symbolizes her, a goddess of death Egyptian, and on its side between the columns, we find statues of victory

And triangles, we find the highest forms of bird sculptures eagle. We find symmetry in the interface to a large extent, in terms of architectural decoration and engineering, with the carvings on the sides are not identical to each other, but they are coordinated with each other or with the interface, so that was suitable for a variety. Dahlman has been described (Dalman) and safe interface as composed of the temple facades, front and rear and placed on top of each, the basement shows the entrance to the temple, and the top shows on the campus of the sacred (Sanctuary).

 He added that this combination was replicated in the building of the monastery and the tomb only Corinthian, which is against the tradition, but appropriate to the place. There were several theories for the origin of the Treasury, has tried a large number of researchers to find buildings like it, may be a source of inspiration for the design of the safe. He found several that derive from the buildings in Alexandria, a temple Cleo Petra, the library, while he Babinschr (Papenstecher) to a ring the building (Tholos), in many private homes and palaces, where she was surrounded by Porticoes (), has been found Starkey (Starcky) the interface Treasury, reflect the architecture in the city of Alexandria, Egypt during the Hellenistic era,
 In any case, we find that this interface combines oriental influences, and represented in the gods, animals, superstitious Egyptian, and the eagle Syrian, and the form of jar East, with the methods of Hellenistic, as well as to the nature of Nabataean in the forms and decoration of crowns, and frieze, and some properties of statues between the elements of the architectural classic. Similar to the lower part of the Treasury, a temple-style Corinthian six columns above the base of low-rise, and columns ends with crowns class Corinthian but they do not resemble the crowns that we know in Jerash, Baalbeck, which returns to the second century AD, then it is not, we find only two rows of paper Alokanthus, and the third row instead of carving floral artist is very precise, out of a pine cone, to occupy the middle of the flat or Alapacos.

 Above the columns extends put to music class ion, has been broken between the last two columns on each side, and the frieze above the sculpture is also a model ion, consisting of floral motifs, animals legendary among the time-like pottery, which abound in the cemetery, called pots tears (Lecmrimaria) . The triangle Vicll four columns Central, not the sum of the columns, as is the case in the temples Romanian, and within the frequent plant motifs surrounding with a woman who had distorted his features, and can be likened to gods experience enlightenment, now in the Museum of Oman, and in the top of the triangle pillar (Acrckrium) with disk of the sun surrounded by the horns and ears of wheat, which is the slogan the Egyptian gods Isis, and the gods Hatour that correspond to when the Semitic gods Astarte,

 The triangle is based on the base of the second round decorated with a frieze of flowers, and statues of sphinxes at both ends. Differs from the second round for the first round, in terms of decoration and architecture, in the center booth round is called in Greek (Tholos) surrounded by columns, Corinthian capitals, and surmounted by a roof-like repression, end crown Cornthe and a jar, placed where usually the ashes of the dead, but here symbolic since it is hollow , has been broken because the Bedouins were firing upon the fire, Danin they contain safe Pharaoh, and under this name circulating today, and on both sides of the kiosk Binaan decorated with columns, above them the triangle is broken, and over the angles remains of Eagles crushed, these buildings constitute a corridor about the kiosk, and succeeded in avoiding the Engineer Nabati monotony, and make other prominent places and hollow, and broken upper triangles on both sides, and break Alhant in the basement, and make consistent the statues prominent in both floors.

Statues on the first floor between the two columns of others, statues of gods known as the Greek Baldioschori, or (Castor and Pollux of the Romans) (Castor and polux) and the two sons of the god Zeus, and were leading the dead to the other world, and therefore hold each and every one of them the reins of his horse, and heading for the first towards the west, and the second towards the east, indicate that they are following the sun at sunrise and sunset. Aldioschori and fits in the upper floor of the Amazon women warriors as they say Greek mythology, has lifted each one Blttha over her head, and began to dance the war dance, while the gowns flying in the air. The kiosk at the front, giving the statue Taika gods of luck and I brought her left hand a century of prosperity, and with the right symbol of fertility, and many such statues in Greek art, and the statue is surrounded by gods and winged victory number six.

 Inside the cabinet is made up within the Treasury of the three rooms, two on the side and the other in the middle, and rooms side empty apart from Treasury dug in the room, Western, and the chamber of Central and climb the stairs, reaching Dilaha 12.50 meters, and on three aspects of the cabinets are placed in sarcophagi for burial, this was the room door closed bronze or wood, as evidenced by the effects of the remaining parties to the gate in the upper and lower
Petra won the competition in the new seven wonders of the world after the official support of the vote, where it was considered a national duty, and the Jordanian government launched a huge propaganda campaigns to Petra in the Jordanian newspapers, radio and television Jordan Jordanian to stimulate the citizens of the Kingdom to the vote. The companies began to launch campaigns to support the vote

   

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