السبت، 8 أكتوبر، 2011

Water Distribution in the Islamic Period

From the beginning of the Islamic conquest of Egypt, Muslim kings and sultans built canals, channels, and dams to transport water from the Nile for agriculture, irrigation, and drinking.

Following an order from the Caliph Umar Ibn al-Khattab, Amr Ibn al-As rebuilt a canal, originally known as the Sesostris canal, that connected the Nile with the Red Sea, which became known as the Canal of Amir al-Mumineen. The Amir al-Mumineen Canal lasted until the 19th century AD.

The earliest remnants of aqueducts were built by Ahmad Ibn Tulun to transport water to his capital Al-Qata'i.

When Sultan Salah al-Din built the walls that surrounded Egypt's Islamic capitals, he utilized the roofs as channels to transport the water.

During the Ayyubid period, the ruler Sultan al-Kamil built channels to transport water to the area of Al-Imam Al-Shafii, where the Sultan's mother was buried in the Mausoleum of Al-Imam Al-Shafii.

Sultan Al-Nasir Mohammad Ibn Qala'un built an aqueduct, a structure for carrying a large quantity of flowing water, to transport water to the Citadel.

In addition, in AH 712 (AD 1312), he built four water wheels on the Nile to transport water along the aqueduct to the Citadel.

In AH 728 (AD 1327), Al-Nasir Mohammad dug a channel from Helwan to the Red Mountain which overlooks Cairo so water could reach the midan, or square, that he built within the Citadel area.

In the year AH 741 (AD 1340), Al-Nasir Mohammad added another well to the channel and built aqueducts to connect with old aqueducts that stretched from the river to the Citadel area .

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