الجمعة، 21 أكتوبر، 2011

Romanian civilization

Romanian ancient civilization deep in history
Empire Romanian is a term called the stage following the Republic of Romania, who ruled Rome, is the evolution of the political rule of Rome, has been characterized by the stage of imperial rule of Rome in that period to authoritarian rule, has been behind the imperial rule of 500 years of Republican rule of Rome (510 BC. M - century first BC), who had been weakened by the conflict between Gaius Marius and Sulla and the civil war of Julius Caesar against Pompey

, There is no specific date shows the transition of Rome from Republic to Empire, but can be considered the beginning of the Romanian Empire from the beginning of the appointment of a dictator Julius Qaasir always to Rome in 44 BC. M, in the stage won by Octavian and heir of Julius Caesar in the battle of Actium (32 September 31 BC), as well as granting the Roman Senate Honorific of Octavian Honorific and the label (August Great) in (June 16, 27 BC)..

Romans are the people journeyed perhaps from Eastern Europe or Asia and then relocated to the islands of Italy from the twelfth century by century and established the city of ancient Rome, and then work the people to organize and develop its political, military, social, and began the gradual expansion and the foundations of the state took control in the first instance on Italian peninsula and then expanded this country and took control of most of the ancient world and became its borders a vast spread of the British Isles and the shores of Europe, the Atlantic west to Mesopotamia and the Caspian Sea coast east and central Europe to the north of the Alps and to-Saharan Africa and the Red Sea in the south, and thus was an example the concept of the state university (Universal State) colonial nature and lasted until the fifth century AD, in which the Germanic tribes were able to control the provinces of the Romanian state in 476 AD

There is no documentation or evidence to determine the historical coming of the Romans to the peninsula and formed other Italian city of Rome, but historians rely on a set of myths and stories passed down by those who have studied ancient history throughout the ages. And stresses the archaeological discoveries and historical documents and facts to establish the small village was about the conflict first between the two brothers Rommelius and Remus on the foundation of the city of Rome and the second conflict between the confidentiality beforehand, and her father Aimlius about the fate of the children Faqamt mother threw the twins in the river Tiber, and is told as well that the twins have babies lupus for more than a week . and then were found patron was tending the area and transferred directly to his wife, where they bring up even reached the age of 18 Rome relative to its founder Romulus and proclaimed himself the King of the first king of Rome and the surrounding areas, and found that a series of kings, numbering seven ruled Rome. The novels that Romulus focused through the establishment of the state has the military aspects of strategy is this:

· Control of the land surrounding Rome.
· Established the first rules of the Romanian laws and religion.
· Expansion and control of the nearby and neighboring regions
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Dropped the people's revolution Roman king tyrant Tarllenius considered the Romans in 509 BC. M juncture a key role in their political, social, economic and named it the glory and that was after a series of political and military events that remain mysterious until the present day, and reached the Roman people to the new organization of power in Rome, and from that date began the actual process of building the Romanian Empire, they sought to expand geographically, where they put in mind the fundamental objective is limited to the geographical expansion of military force, political, economic,

And have seen that this is the best way to achieve the aspirations of this young State, and have started wars like conquests tribal Ltd. aimed at subjugating the tribes and families surrounding Rome, and that was through the stages of the First Republic, which she founded the Empire Romanian, and then began to stage the Second Republic which saw the transformation of the country emerging from the force Latin in the Italian peninsula to the global military force affected Pmaaijeri and affect in the center of the ancient world (the Mediterranean) and in this stage is over the wars of Rome in the Italian peninsula, and started wars of the Romans with the Phoenicians (Carthaginians), which was the city of Carthage, located in North Africa their capital, has been named the Punic wars, wars

 The conflict began - Roman Carthaginian fundamentally as a commercial and then take the military dimensions and was the first contact between the parties when the Romans occupied the island of Sicily in 264 BC. M and considered Carthaginians this invasion impinge directly to their economic interests, political, and this incident was the beginning of the war between the Romans and Carthaginians, which continued to in 241 BC. m.
 
In the Punic wars two sides have fought a series of land and sea battles to resolve some of them and stayed the other without decisive results, but the majority of the resolution of the battles of the Romans and especially the land battles, the naval battles were often the results of the Qirtagiyn where most of their troops freely unlike the Romans who were their forces on land

Has achieved the Romans first victory when he dragged the Carthaginians from Sicily in 241 BC. M, and then followed to enable the Roman Mokhtarius Marcus Digaulos defeat the fleet Carthage in 256 BC. M. This was the battle the first naval battle fought by the Roman army, but the Carthaginians did not make do with Roman and decided their leader in this era of time Hannibal continue to extend the scope of control on the Carthaginian coast of Spain has arrived in Marseille determined to invade the Italian territory from the North West.
 
  And began the Carthaginians campaign the new Romans, and here the balance of power tilted against Rome After more than ten years of continuous wars with the enemies of different on all directions of the Italian peninsula quiet campaign of Hannibal studied and prepared her well and become like the spearhead in the face of aspirations of the Romanian, especially as the this campaign has appeared with the emergence of a number of parties hostile to the Romans and became the Romanian state in fear of alliances that may threaten the existence of their state

Victories of Hannibal
Hannibal was able to achieve a series of victories of the Romans Qirtagiyn are:
· Victory over the Roman army at the Battle of Kani CANNAE.
· Capture of Saontom ally of Rome.
· Cut Trribia River.
That period has been an alliance between the Macedonian king Philip V and Hannibal against the Romans, and further exacerbated by the separation of Syracuse in Sicily for the central authority in Rome and Rome became here on the brink of defeat

The defeat of Hannibal
There were many defeats Carthaginian reasons, including:
· The ability of leaders to face the difficulties the Romans and quiet composure.
· Benefit from the lessons of successive military combat as soon as possible.
· The survival of most of the Latin allies of Rome to her in times of crisis.
· Non-arrival of aid and supplies to the forces of Hannibal of Carthage.
· The government Carthaginian suffers from divisions and corruption, which led to the failure to back the campaign Alhanibalah.
· The bulk of the Army (Hannibal) of the Cavalry, and was this weapon effective in combat and fast moving, but it is adequate for the operations of the siege and occupation of land.

These attitudes and influences exploited by the Romans they reopened the organization of their armies and published on various fronts and have a series of campaigns that led to the restoration of all the cities of Syracuse and Gaby, and the Romans decided to open a front in Spain to besiege the forces of Hannibal and prevent reinforcements from reaching it.
 
Romanian troops have inflicted defeat of the Carthaginian forces in the Battle of Ailiba Ilipa in Spain and in the meantime fell Macedonian king Philip V of the alliance with the Romans to Hannibal Vsay its reconciliation

He led the Roman Mokhtarius Sibiu army of 25 thousand men of infantry Madamin Balkhialh and cut by the Mediterranean on his way to Carthage, and insisted on calling the Carthaginians of Hannibal from Spain to lead the Carthaginian armies, and the two armies met at the Battle of Zama that defeated the Carthaginians. After this defeat, the Treaty was held in which both parties agreed that:
· Pays tribute to the Carthaginians fifty years.
· Reduce the Carthaginian ships to ten ships.
· Not to launch any war outside of Africa without the consent of Rome.

The results of the control of the Roman victory on the Romanian coast of Spain and south-eastern Spain was divided into two districts under the name of Spain, near and distant Spain.
Following the completion of the Carthaginian stave off the threat's attention focused on the east and the Romans are thinking of taking the kingdom of Macedonia and has already declared war on them and they have been targets are:
· Reduce or eliminate the influence of Macedon in the East.
· Control of the islands in the eastern Mediterranean due to its high importance in terms of navigation and trade.
· Access to the territory of the Kingdom of the forecastle, which had controlled parts of Asia Minor and northern Syria.

Launched the Romans a series of battles that ended the occupation of the entire land Macedonian in the Middle was control of the Greece of Greece, and by the end of the war has widened the borders of the Romanian from Spain in the west to the western coast of Asia Minor in the east, in addition to land Carthaginian in North Africa, and divided this vast territory to the seven provinces linked to the central government in Rome.
 
After these victories become the Romanian State is a superpower difficult to conquer and control the destiny of the ancient world east and west, and in this phase began Roman history is abuzz with the names of leaders and leaders of the victorious and became the ruling class affect the course of events in Rome and abroad, and after the rest period that followed the war was a prelude to a new phase of the vast conquests Romanian, and began the process of expansion to go towards the imposition of imperial system was done in two shifts

· Empire first entered the Romanian State a crucial new phase of its history, the phase of the empire, it has become a leader Octavian the first emperor of Rome and continued his nearly 40 years during which extension of control of Egypt after the defeat of Cleopatra at the battle of Actium Navy, and remains of the Gallic France , and tried to invade Germania internal Fanahzm Taotberg in position and wiped out the entire Romanian battalions and the number was twenty-five thousand combatants and returned to Rome, the leader Pharos defeated. And the foundations of the Empire Octavian strain known as strain rate Jawlianih to his uncle Julius Caesar.
 
The Second Empire in this period began to spread Christianity throughout the east of the empire, but the official religion of the empire was a pagan in its origins dating back to Greek religion

 Started the countdown in the life of the Romanian State from the year 235 AD the year was increased serious political and social unrest escalated when external attacks, especially from the Germanic tribes and the return of the influence of the Persian Empire in the Middle, which took Armenia from the hands of the Romans took control of the territory of Mesopotamia and march the army Persian invaded Antioch, Syria could not Romans repelled even came Emperor Diocletian DIOCLETIAN which is considered the founder of the empire the third and managed to restore power to assign to four people share power, a system known as the power quartet has continued to work with this system up to 305 m and then followed a struggle for power continued throughout the period of 306 to 313, that came to the throne of Emperor Constantine, who considered his major turning point in the path of the Romanian empire

During the second and third centuries, there have been three crises together, and threatened the collapse of the Roman Empire: external invasions, internal civil wars, and the weakness of the economy. In the meantime, the city of Rome became less important as the administrative center of the Roman Empire. The third century crisis showed flaws homogeneous system of government that he founded to manage the Augustus of the Roman Empire. Enter the successors of some amendments, but events made ​​clear that a new world standard is a more centralized system required.
 
Division of the empire began in the late third century by Diocletian in 286, was designed to control efficiently the Roman Empire Empire Romanian Bank (Western Roman Empire) refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, the other half of the Roman Empire became known as the Eastern Roman Empire, and today known widely as the Byzantine Empire
Department of Theodosius I (also called "the Great") of the Roman Empire to his two sons Arcadius to the Eastern Roman Empire with his capital in Constantinople and in the Western Empire Honorius with his capital at Milan

 During the struggle for power has seen the Romanian state chaos unprecedented in the competition was on the reins of the empire between the seven men who are Maximian and Galerius and Maxntios and Maximenius Daya and Licinius and Constantine, in addition to Dumitius Alexander, who announced its split in Africa, and everyone started to collapse, leaving only Licinius, who had control of the eastern regions and Constantine, who had a strong and dominated the western regions, and two reached an agreement on co-existence and recognition of each of the other authority and control over the areas governed by, and continued this truce, about ten years, and in 324 AD Saddam signed between the two men in a battle Adraanuel which won where Constantine and this victory forces Constantine chasing troops to Licinius in Asia Minor and was able Constantine the arrest of his rival and his execution became Constantine was emperor only in Rome. have contributed to Constantine to provide freedom for the Christians in Rome by issuing the edict of Milan which gave Christians freedom of worship has taken some measures that concern state including:

 · Restore order to the State.
· Reforms which he deemed necessary.
· Converting to Christianity the official religion and the mind of the Romanian State.
· The establishment of a new capital of his state in the Bezntyum on the banks of the Bosphorus and called nueva roma any new Rome was later known as Constantinople.

 It is worth mentioning; Alhohenstauffineh that era were associated with the final TFT feudalism in Germany, and the collapse of German sovereignty in Italy. If we tried to Nstqrye Date Empire ROMANIAN following through events, we realized that the historical period was a struggle between the emperors Alhohenstaoven and the papacy, but if you have passed these events to the background distant seemed to us indeed a conflict between two concepts of the rule of one, two political and spiritual, and this was the inevitable result of the concept of deeper and wider than it was for him fratricidal Henry IV and Gregory VII, so that the two parties became both the prosecution bears the full universal

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