الجمعة، 21 أكتوبر، 2011

The most important capitals of ancient Egypt

Was the capital of Egypt in the Pharaonic era city, the headquarters of the king who ruled Egypt are subject to different criteria, including geographic, including the political and the other religious.
 
This was a city as a capital gain the bulk of the attention of kings pharaohs who they took as a place to stay in terms of models, where construction of temples, palaces and buildings of the nobles and senior statesmen and look metropolis of the country into which goods and looks the most beautiful city in Egypt, and with the demise of the star and the emergence of another city less attention and stretch neglect by her back is not an ordinary city only by the ruins of glory run, have long or short period of prosperity may be tens or hundreds of years, including the stretch of prosperity for thousands of years

§ First: Memphis (3200 - 2200 BC).:

 It is the first Egyptian political Asim after the unification of the country by King Narmer after a bitter struggle with the North. It was for "Memphis," chosen by the King, "Narmer" Geography is the site Astrtejy as it is located between the north and south and from this site can oversee all parts of Egypt, especially after the unit where it is bordered to the east shore of the River Nile, such as protecting natural flows passing and invaded it and in the West desert of Egypt and the Giza Plateau from the northeast, while in the south, extends to the territory of upper Egypt (level) pro faculties of the King South (Narmer). and an increase in the fortifications of King Narmer inform (Memphis) fence surrounds the north, west and south were painted in white fired awareness of the title of "pilgrimage tweaked" any fence or wall white. The title (Memphis) is derived from (the people) any effect of the beautiful splendor and beauty.

 And has been in Egypt since 3200 - 2200 BC. M control of the Memphis political capital of the country throughout the ancient era and the era of the so-called era of the ancient builders of the pyramids. It was replete with palaces property of the king and members of the royal family as well as the palaces and houses of nobility and senior state officials and many of the temples, especially the Temple of the god "Ptah," and his wife, the gods "Sekhmet" and son "Nfrtm" and became the capital of Egypt for more than a thousand years.

 With the fall of the Old Hebei star Memphis as the capital and that remained throughout the Pharaonic, Greek, Romanian and even the Islamic era, among the most important Egyptian cities at all as a city religious, the seat of the god "Ptah," one of the most important gods President in Egypt as well as trade between the north and south, we find that Alexander the Great had after his conquest of Egypt in 332 BC. CE, visited the Temple of "Ptah," and closer to the Egyptians this visit to one of the most important Egyptian gods, but not chosen again as the capital of Egypt, Thebes Luxor, but chose to site a new city in the region Racodh a fishing village on the northern coast of Egypt offset by a small island, and pointed to his generals to link the island to the coast for two and was alleged to name the city of Alexandria on the name.

Also has had Amr bin Aas at the conquest of Egypt in 641 AD, and a treaty clarifying the Romans to Egypt and the safety of the Egyptians under the rule of Arab Muslims, to the importance of this city is "Memphis" dead hostage is now a small village in Egypt has lost its most important city in Egypt


 § Second: Thebes (Luxor) 2062-950 BC. M:

 After the collapse of the old state conflicts occurred between the governors and rode every ruler Bakulaimh Egypt became made ​​up of several regions of the daggers-drawn by the referees the rest of the seizure of the territory the other, so could the King "Mentuhotep II" in 2062 BC. M from the completion of the second unit between the territory of North and South for the second time , and here we find it did not keep his ancient capital, "Memphis", but he chose the capital of its territory "and Estee" and meaning scepter as his capital he called Greek Thebes and then later, after them the Arabs of Luxor.

 Did not enjoy the "The AST" often in the Middle Kingdom, where we find that the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty established the capital of the other, a "east of Tawi" Allst is currently entering the Hyksos Egypt in 1675 BC. M, and took over the north and center of the country and only the rule of the Egyptians on the south and came back "and Estee "the capital of the Egyptians during the time decay of the second, a main city in the south, which began with the War of Liberation led by the King," Seqenenre "and was succeeded by his son," Kamose "and later" Ahmose I, "who managed to expel the Hyksos and the unification of Egypt for the third time and became" The AST "of the Egyptian capital of the country for the second time in its history, the beginning of the era of the modern state has seen "The AST" with the rulers of Egypt, such as bone, "Ahmose I" and "Thutmose III" and "Amenhotep III" and "City first" and "Ramses II" and "Ramses III",

 Became "The AST" the greatest city in the world of the Egyptian empire, which work kings bone secured and hit on any hand aggressor, whether in East or South or West and during the 600 years have seen "The AST" the greatest glory, where Trump borders of Egypt from northern Syria and western Iraq to Central Africa in the south and a half of Libya in the west and poured the tribute to Egypt, as well as foreign delegations asking Dr. Egypt and holding relations at the diplomatic and trade, military and won "and Estee" of the rulers of great interest throughout the pharaonic history, and has expanded and grown architecture including thrived from the temples of great still remain even now experiencing the greatness of Egyptian civilization,

 Such as the temples of Karnak and Luxor, and Medinet Habu, the Ramesseum, along with cemeteries luxury of the kings of the pharaohs and their wives in the Valley of the Kings and Queens and the tombs of the nobles and funerary temples enough to give us an idea of ​​the extent of what we have reached "and Estee" during the era of the modern so called capital of the percent door. Also witnessed "and Estee" active world trade not seen in the city by where he does not pass one day only and there are delegations from Asia and delegates from Africa and Libya, with the rich goods from all over the ancient world incomparable cities "Paris" or "London" these days. With the passage of time and the end of the modern state and enter the era of decay of the third and take on Egypt's rulers from Nubia and Libya and the Persian neglected "and Estee" while maintaining its status as the greatest city in Egypt until he invaded Egypt, the Persian king, "Cambyses" 525 BC. CE, who made the destruction and looting of temples of treasures and destroyed most of the landmarks and taking with him the most important artists, became "The AST" city destroyed after it was stolen bride Middle East. And remained that way until the end of the era of the Pharaohs

And moved the Egyptian capital of the north, south, east and west until the selection of the Greek capital of Alexandria on the northern coast of Egypt, fearing that Aquaomanm Egyptians in the country in case they make "and Estee" their capital, but still "and Estee," which from Britain by the Greek name of the new "good" in the name of one of the Greek cities of to its most important cities in ancient times, Greek, Romanian and even Islamic, as the largest and most important cities of Upper and launched the Arab name "Luxor", and that much of what they found of great buildings.



Promise to "Memphis" and "good" did not have any of the cities the privilege of being the Egyptian capital of Egypt, only some small towns such as "Ott Tawi" Allst and some small cities for very short periods Kawasam of Pharaonic Egypt. Even the city of "the righteousness of Rameses" Sun Stone, which was built by "Ramses II" has not taken a political capital of the country without "AST", but a summer venue for him and his family and not as a capital by the management of the country and its interests. Thus, we find that during the Old Kingdom of Memphis and Thebes in the Middle and Late Period and modern Tboata a high status among the cities of Pharaonic Egypt Kawasam of unified Egypt.

 


ليست هناك تعليقات:

إرسال تعليق