الأحد، 23 أكتوبر، 2011

The use of papyrus in the era of the Pharaohs

Papyrus of the most popular plants known to man since the dawn of history, which is a water plant that grows in freshwater swamps and land covered by shallow water to a depth of not more than 50 cm or aspects of the land of canals and high humidity or salt water.

This plant animate falaqa one and his name Ballatyny (Sipes Baberus), and therefore of the genus (Alsaybrs) a Ojnls platoon Saadia and Egypt has experienced this myself nearly seventy different types of papyrus (Cypress Baberus) and that was no longer grows in Egypt except sofa for decoration In some gardens

  However, he continued to grow in abundance in Egypt until the year 1820, this plant consists of a trunk floor, known as "Alraizum" usually extend in the silt, which is the surface of swamps, and the leg extends send roots down into the mud to get to the food needed

 , And consists in the upper part of the "Alrazizum" buds turn later to the branches of air (leg), a trio of pieces are usually thick in parts of the lower harbor and then gradually as we head to the top of the leg until the end of the leg at the top of Beram blossom for many a green yarn

  Which gives us the form of a "flower" and covered with papyrus stalk rind green and does not carry any leg hold and encases the lower part of the leg submerged in the water some papers carcinoma. Ranging in size between five and nine papers and a lush red color.

Use the ancient Egyptian papyrus in many uses, it has made ​​of the leg ropes (samples of which are Egyptian Museum), as well as use in the manufacture of mats to sit on, or for wrapping dead bodies before burial after the mummification process and making the priests of the marrow papyrus sandals, which were Atnalunha.

 Ancient Egyptian as well as I could take advantage of low property density and buoyancy above the water did the same thing, including boats and big boats used for fishing and bird

The papyrus was among the first materials used by ancient Egyptians in building their huts with the development of use of building materials such as limestone and granite, but they have been affected plants, the environment surrounding them.

Perhaps the most important use of the papyrus is making papyrus scrolls or papyrus as a writing and blogging. As the papyrus of the most famous natural vegetation in Egypt, so the Egyptians called this plant the most common last names, name erased "mhit" In addition, the leg called the name of "ANA" and called the promises of papyrus, "ANA". N. Erased wid.n.mhit,). Also called the "pw" form

And opened a package from the stems of papyrus the name of "literacy." The jungles of papyrus has called it "Thovy" or "Thov," Not only did the ancient Egyptians to express papyrus names former swell under the name "Grant" mnh) or turn mnhi as well as "Water" itr meaning papyrus or some of its parts Kalakecor stripped him to manufacturing

.

Making papyrus, despite the abundance of life forms, which recorded ancient Egyptian tombs and the temples and monuments but until now did not reach us any scenes for the manufacture of papyrus only one single view of the cemetery "Bbwimmera" of the Twelfth Dynasty Luxor. It represents two men standing in a boat of papyrus in a swamp and is one of them sticks Ptkulaia papyrus,

The other is to link what has been uprooting them in packages where the third person transported for the fourth sitting engaged in the number of stems of papyrus and processing for the paper industry where the images, which handle the parties to stalk them after cutting Zahrtha between the fingers of his left foot and the fingers of his left hand and the disarmament of outer shell with his right hand.

  There is no doubt that the landscape is a process of preparing the plant for processing. He has a lot of scientists attempts to manufacture a newly papyrus including Bruce Bruce J Bdayih with the nineteenth century AD Lucas and unique to the successful "Batescum Jane" B. Gunn in the manufacture of luxury sample of the plant are now in the Egyptian Museum. The advantage of durability, strength and viability of the sprain, was followed the following steps

Cut stems of papyrus, a green lengths to easily dealt with, and then remove outer shell construction of the inner core into thick slices is not necessary to be of a thickness of just one, so do grooves in a way both sides of the core of papyrus,

Then brought cloth absorbs water and placed on Juan and a half it was so that these slides Mtazna and overlapping slightly. And covered with a cloth and beats them for an hour or two hours Bmedk then placed in the presses for a few hours Vtlthm slides and hold together without the use of any adhesives.

However, the most successful modern attempts to make papyrus that carried out by Dr. Eng / Hassan Ragab Fahmy, director of the Museum d / Rajab of the Barada, where he started in 1961 in an attempt to obtain a sample from the papyrus plant is located in Wadi al-Natrun

  Managed planted in his farm on the island of Jacob, has made ​​numerous experiments, research, and succeeded after years of producing a kind of papyrus leaves very similar to the existing papyrus in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

The most important Astnajath that papyrus-making is not done any chemical hand and stick slide to each other without the use of any types of adhesives

Ancient Egyptians used papyrus chips to write it on a roll in a long time, sometimes to 45 meters which is the first Papyrus Harris.
He was taken into account when making the lap thread attached to the parties to each other starchy material by an adhesive, so that each page covers approximately 1-2 cm from the northern side of the page with the following

  This is called the fixed link, which is characterized by Boukhuntha and increase the thickness, the link is always a right angle with the horizontal fibers of the pages, was launched by the Egyptians on each sheet or page with the name "Qaan."

 It was the beginning and the end of the roll, the more parts susceptible to damage Icoaan chips attached to from the bottom to protect it, and was taken into account when you paste pages lap with each other that all fiber horizontal pages on the first side and the fiber vertical on the other side, except in very few cases the writer the paste footsteps.

The face of the language and called Recto is the one whose side ever fiber horizontal pages, which is allocated for the writing, while the back is called Verso consists of the ever fiber vertical pages, which are parallel to the fibers (links) and the papyrus folded normally so that the fibers horizontal inside lap, while the vertical fibers, which appeared lap Vtkon from abroad.

  The papyrus files after the completion of which folded in the form of a cylinder height is almost the same height as the pages that make up the lap, while the thickness depends on the number of pages and the papyri ROMANIAN damage on a wooden leg, or on a piece of bone

The ancient Egyptian writing begins on the side ever fiber of the horizontal lap, and when you're on this side were placed on the other side ever vertical fiber.

The ancient Egyptians used the horizontal line and vertical writing on papyrus, then the only line on the horizontal line only since the Middle Kingdom and became a vertical line is limited to certain addresses. It was started by a margin without writing piety slices of papyrus wide range between 5 cm and 9 cm, where it's more wild parts susceptible to damage.

Was not interested in the Egyptian writer numbering pages figures did not exist except in the Papyrus Papyrus is one SHOW Ebrs which pages are numbered from No. (1) to No. (110) with the omission of two pages 28.29.

The author writes his themes on papyrus, without leaving a vacuum at the beginning of the first line or with the beginnings of chapters and paragraphs of successive sets it apart is not some words that you write and the red ink will go through until the end of the topic.

 Sometimes the writer writes the address on the back of papyrus from the first page so that it can be read after the papyrus roll. The writer corrects his mistakes in red ink or remove it.

And use the ancient Egyptian ink (ink) of calcium carbonate (white) and carbon (black) and calcium sulphate (yellow) and hematite (brown) and lead oxide red (red) The blue and green were of glass powder. The colors were made ​​in the form of tablets after crushing the material well and then mixed with glue and water and then dried for use.

That was used in writing only black and red, while the rest of the colors were used in the coloring, and black color due date of employment in writing to the Egyptian pre-dynastic period year 3400 BC. M.

Egyptian scribes used black ink to write on their topics of different files papyrus The use of red color was limited at first, and the ancient Egyptians used since the beginning of the Middle Kingdom to write the month and day in their histories in red, except for some cases.

In literary subjects when divided into small sentences he put a small red or point it begins a sentence or paragraph in red or write the words you want to show their importance as well as in writing the final words of each papyrus. The ancient Egyptian papyrus used for drawing and coloring, also used to write it and see it in the Book of the Dead, which was placed with the deceased.

      

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