الجمعة، 21 أكتوبر 2011

Pharaoh Akhenaton's monotheism (Fourteenth century BC).

Akhnaton Akhnaton is the king of Egypt, the pharaoh Amenhotep IV «Amon satisfied», named in the classical sources Omnovis. His father, Amenhotep III (1417 -1379 BC)., And his mother, Tiye, which descended from a popular environment, unlike what is known about the wives of the pharaohs who Thdrn of distinct strains. The Mredath is T, and her husband, the commander of vehicles Aye, aunt and sister of the Queen Mother is the «death star» Moutnejmet.
 
     And talk to the sources for his marriage to Princess Nefertiti (Fine came), which they dubbed beauty, wonderful, and as Princess Mitanih without being based on this evidence, it is known about the origin, and hovering a lot of mystery about the family ties to the royal family and the courtiers who were living in her dependents. But it is known fact that the royal couple blessed with six daughters, of whom the roar of Merritt and wife Kara Smonkh Okhansn Baaton wife Aten Tutankhamun (Tutankhamun

The young King had named him after the royal coronation «Nfarrakbrora» but after six years of his ascendancy to the throne called himself «Akhenaten», a name made ​​famous by.
 
     The rule of Akhenaten nearly two decades (1379-1362 BC)., But the beginning of the end of his mixed his father's rule, which Egypt reached the peak of its glory during his reign in ancient history, and extended its influence from the island Lafratah and Anatolia, Crete and the Aegean Sea basin to the Nuba

Under these conditions began to Amenhotep IV, a crown prince, and in the life of his father, the practice of worship and religious rites inherited from his ancestors, especially those attached to Amun - Ra god of the state. And taken at the same time announce the new religious ideas evolved until it turned to heresy (heresy) to exit on the prevailing traditional teachings. But the renewed religious orientations increased visible after succeeded his father on the throne. In the sixth year of his reign (1374 BC). The king announced new calls for the principles of religion to the worship of One God is «roar», was like the winged sun disk. It is without cutting the King prayer traditions inherited work to highlight some of the manifestations, which he saw more realistic expression of the God who wanted to be closer to all people, and globally, is present everywhere, in that era, which opened when Egypt closed the meeting including the surrounding neighbors, and had as a result of that review in the foundations of internal and spiritual life.

 Does not include worship in the new religion of Akhenaten any secret process, not imposed on people of certain rituals, but do not know how to worship has been a shift from the old to the new worship. Archaeological evidence that Akhenaten established a number of physical facilities, most notably the famous Temple of Karnak (near Luxor today), and the city Okhitt roar, his new capital, which the Tel el-Amarna in Upper Egypt over the ruins of old.

     At the site known today as the Karnak complex includes a number of ancient temples, which was the most important house of the god Amun, a favorite of the ruling class of the eighteenth dynasty, and is surrounded by homes of senior priests. In this place, and to the east of the pyramid of Akhenaten built a temple of Amun to Aten, the sun bright. The aim was to establish a clear and a new religion to replace the old worship. And directed, in the impressive poetic hymns to the Lord Aton, symbolized by the sun's disk, and announced that no life for nothing without him.

In his call for renewed declaring the king the priest that the blessings of the roar is not restricted to Egypt and its people, and it is for creatures in each place of humans and animals, granted a roar when Chrogah power of objects and creates in order to continue the grace of life, when the twilight fade away life in everything. When the world loses its breath of life enters this world in depression, while the sun is shipped with a new card to disappear from sight. The researchers found a number of similarities between the content of this Alokhanatonah hymns and Psalms attributed to David (tenth century BC). Especially Psalm 104.

 In religion Alokhanatonah introduced amendments to the theories concerning the death and funeral rites, and traditions of burial, and provided explanations Nchoria new Aloozyreh old traditions of the world the other. The Amon, a hidden power as evidenced by his name, no longer represents the king, nothing but what is amazing. The king, who chose a name of God known in the ancient Pyramid Texts, in the third millennium BC. M is the roar of a planet the sun the source of all things, came to be called when any of his subjects Akhenaten «Abdul roar». And the roar of this, who was in the Middle Kingdom is receiving air to the King at his departure to the world of the dead, this is back when the transition to the flesh is sacred, to the body, which came out of it.

Akhenaten and use the arts to spread his teachings, the work himself on the education of artists and guide them in his time it was seen necessary to translate his ideas in the new religious forms and realistic. In the east of the temple of Karnak, which set up by the roar of the king's image and treated with pictures of his family amazing realism. Highlighted in the form of Akhenaten distortions intended for the body, and painted on the face of signs on introspection when the artist who was interested to reflect on his experience of self-deep in the preview of what is being thought at that stage of the history of Egypt, and expression effort aims to express the emotions interior of the object to portray the true form of the body. Vokhanaton recommend that everything must be sacrificed for truth, which is the source of balance, justice and a life of holiness picture elements as reflected in the mirror of faith.

Passed the first years of the reign of Amenhotep IV, Akhenaten, as a participant of power with his father in the capital good. But he was determined to achieve the reform of a religious radical, he left the capital good with the consent of his father the king, and established at a distance of approximately three hundred and seventy-five kilometers to the north of Thebes, away from the land of Ammon, a new city soon became the capital of Zahera is Okhitt Aten (Amarna) .
 
     Akhenaten and then transfer its headquarters to this new city to live with a spouse and Jawarah and members of his entourage of senior staff and six daughters who Onjpthen Nefertiti. It seems that the royal family lived a happy life in Okhitt roar split up the family in the late years of his reign.
 
     Not only the change in the way of life of the pharaoh on his relationship with his family and his flock, but there is a change in the style of the Egyptian king is highlighted by a study diplomatic messages in the archives of the Tel el-Amarna which reveal the method of communication and messaging between the kings and princes of Canaan, Amuru (Palestine, Syria) on the one hand and the Egyptian pharaoh of the other

The study shows the age of the entire Amarna influence on the deterioration in the areas of the Pharaonic after lax in imposing prestige of the king, which fell far short of what was in the era of Thutmose III. Vmbalg tribute imposed on the country no longer up to the Treasury of Pharaoh. Pharaonic palace did not move as necessary to meet the international situation caused by the decline in Egypt to provide the Hittite influence. It seems that a major plot edges of the inside: the priests of Amun in Thebes, and the army commander Horemheb on the one hand, and the princes of Canaan, and Amuru on the other hand, has been managed for the overthrow of the monarch who had no interest to religious reform, without the perimeter of what was happening around him.

 Passed through a time when the King, however, strong gripping the reins in the palace at Thebes. He could order the construction of huge temples to Aten at Thebes near the temples of Amun. But after the twelfth year of his reign to take alternate weakness in the structure of power. The split took place in the royal family itself. I left Queen Nefertiti, the royal palace in downtown Okhitt educator with the roar of T-II and her husband, the priest and four of her daughters and The Little Prince Tut Gnk roar

And taken to the same seat in the north of the city, while the King stood in the palace in the south of the capital. And forged ties with the younger brother «Smonkh Kara» it to his brother in law and husband for his daughter and a partner in the management of the king, and thus entered a new phase of the Amarna era. At this stage, further exacerbated the king mental, and increased behavior disorder, hauling semi-random and expanded the front anti-his religious when he ordered the destruction of statues of Amun and erase his name from inscriptions, and abolished the titles and all that was known of the recipes reflect the belief to protect his throne royal. The scope of this change in religious life in ancient Egypt even included a picture falcon that symbolizes to the goddess Nkhbt, misrepresented the name of the city of Amon (Thebes), written in hieroglyphics, and the king issued orders to remove those images hated to the borders of Nubia, and the establishment of the worship of Aten place all over the country .

 Has collided with the religious policy led by the King with strong opposition led by priests of the temples, who were more affected by the unification of worship, as well as the nobles who threatened to reform their privileges, and officers and commanders who reduced their influence in the country to lack of interest in King army and the reluctance to pursue the policy of his predecessors expansion, hitting weak capacity of the state and the military prestige of the usual deteriorated internally and externally, and entered Anatolia powerful states in Syria.

The documents indicated that the Amarna letters, especially from the diplomatic to the reality of the situation in Palestine and Syria in the face of the Hittite expansion. It was the departure of Akhenaten for the leadership of his armies, or move in an effective manner in order to maintain the sites of Egypt in Western Asia, and only working to spread his faith new consequences cost the country dearly, in addition to the collapse of trade relations to the lack of security and stability, and ended the days of King in the midst of crisis is a tragic, Walt things initially to the heir Smonkh Kara, who has worked to reconnect Bmnafis and good, and restored Egypt to religious pluralism.

 Akhenaten and was buried in his capital Okhitt Aten. Archaeologists have identified the grave, but they did not only find the wreck of the Royal Nawosh restored and transferred to the Cairo Museum. As for his. That have not found one does not know what happened to them. It may be hit by what happened to Okhitt Aten (Amarna) from destruction at the hands of the leader Horemheb, who was at the forefront of action to end the era of Amarna and the overthrow of Akhenaten. Was found in the Valley of the Kings on the mummy thought to be his. But there is no conclusive evidence of that. After Smonkh Kara, who ruled briefly ascended the throne of King Aton, who was forced to change his name to Tutankhamun, heralding the return of respect for the good priests of Amun, and the powerful. Thus collapsed early this attempt to overthrow the traditional religious conscience in ancient Egypt and to achieve oneness of God and the place of diversity.

Akhenaton (Akhenaten, Ikhnaton) or Amenhotep IV is the tenth Pharaohs of the Eighteenth Dynasty ruled with his wife Nefertiti Home for 17 years ago in 1369 BC. M. (Died 1336 BC or 1334 BC), a word meaning Akhenaton (the Savior of the Aten).

Tried to unite the gods of ancient Egypt, including the god Amun-Re in the form of the one God Aten, although there are doubts over its success in this, and moved the capital from Thebes to his new capital Akhetaten, Minya, showing the art realistic, especially in sculpture, painting and the back of new literature is characterized anthem of God's new Aten, or what is now a system of Tel el-Amarna.

And the busy King Akhenaten Baslahath religious and departed for foreign policy and the administration of the empire up till Upper Euphrates and Nubia in the south, Fanfsal the Asian part of them, and when he died, his successor Smonkh Ka Ra and his brother, Tutankhamun, which bounced off the doctrine of the roar and left the capital to Thebes and announced the return of the doctrine of Amun, declaring that Tut Tutankhamun, the demolition of the priests of good effects of Akhenaten and his city and his name erased from it.

There are many theories about the fate of Akhenaten, but there is no conclusive evidence on what happened to him after years of moving to his new capital.

The continued search for the tomb of King Akhenaten, since finding the first tombs of the Valley of the Kings in the 19th century and the twentieth century without reaching a firm conclusion, so I started studies conducted by the Supreme Council of Antiquities and the University of Cairo on the mummies, as announced in February 2010 that the group had discovered through the analysis of DNA analysis of genes that «the mummy in tomb 55 in the Valley of the Kings is the mummy and the father of King Golden Tut Ankh Amun, and he believed that the mummy belonged to a man who died between the ages of 20 and 25 years, but it turned out the result of research that he died between the ages of 45 and 50 years, a the son of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye, which indicates that he himself Akhenaton

Akhenaten was the youngest son of King Amenhotep III of the Queen T by the wife is the great favorite of Amenhotep III, was not destined to be Akhenaten Crown until the death of his older brother Thutmose.

 Extended the reign of King Amenhotep III to the nearly 38-year-old died after leaving the throne to his son Omnhotپ fourth and perhaps the rule of joint (coregency) lasted between 1 to 2 or 12 years, where it is believed that part of his father in power at the age of sixteen, [2], is believed to the reign of Akhenaten, is one of the 1353 BC --1 336 BC or 1351 BC --1 334 BC.

There are a lot of controversy about whether Amenhotep IV took the throne after the death of his father, Amenhotep III, or whether there is a provision common Similarly, although it is accepted that Akhenaten himself died in year 17 of his reign, and there are a lot of controversy about whether Smonkh Ka Ra Akhenaten took part in the government perhaps 2 or 3 years earlier, after Akhenaten, the pharaoh Smonkh Ka Ra only Pharaoh, it is likely that ruled Egypt for less than a year.

Try to Akhenaten when he took the throne of the country's unification of the gods of ancient Egypt, including the god Amun-Re in the form of worship of the sun god alone, and the symbol of his Baqrsa which he called Aten, he said of his idol (that one is not a partner), and in the fourth year of his reign chose Akhenaten, the site of his new capital. and began to build in the following year, he named it Akhetaten, the horizon of any furnace, and its current location is the Tel el-Amarna [3]. He played the king and his beautiful wife Nefertiti, the role of mediator between God and the roar of the people.

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